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Xatckar

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Xatckar ( okon khachkar, armenavon խաչքար sugdalakiraf gu « gamdaraporxa ») tir livakoraf ok rontagentimaf atcom balumayan gu tanoya ok konaka gamda do fereon zikexa is dile ayafa vola is kosuteks. Ton aptolaca ke armenafa yamba, moe varafo tawavo ke izvafa Armena darekeon tigiyir ise koe Xayastana is Artsakh rekeon zo nendoyeper.

Bat grabom rayan ok blonjayan ok dzetaf ok amudaf, gubeon ontinaf vas 1 ik 2 m- is mantaf vas 0.5 ik 1.5 m- is vaf vas 10 ik 30 cm-, va siofayani ok kimbasi ok djazafi fli tikid ; va « xatckar awalkikxo » dum koe Noratus ok Julfa abdi vilara dile tadled. Va enilt ke armenafa grekafa alka viwazed nume va xonukera ke Yesus Kristos vols inafa lorafa tuwava ton bliaal me kaatoed.

Yambizva ke xatckar atcomeem gu balemoya rekola jadion zo solzarter : xantafa rekola wali IV-eafa is IX-eafa decemda, az tela ke redura is tazukoyera wali IX-eafa is XI-eafa decemda, az tela ke tenukera is tukotunara wali XII-eafa is XIII-eafa decemda, az tela tenafa wali XIV-eafa is XVII-eafa decemda. Nekev warzafa vonera mali 1960-e sanda, witaf xatckar atcom va telyon pulukaf me tukevlad.

Mali 17/11/2010, « yamba ke armenafa gamdaraporxa ; leceva is grupaskira ke xatckar atcom » tir ke vexala dem meugafa arayafa ayikafa gadakiewega ke UNESCO.

Xatckar, « gamdaraporxa »

Ravlemxanta

Armenavon, xatckar ravlem ( խաչքար ) tir dem toloya tadlexa : xatc ( gamda, խաչ ) az kar ( rapor, քար ). [1] Acum yolt vas « gamdaraporxa » num « gamda keve rapor » [2] rusunon sugdalar. Ferefa kalkotavara gu « raporgamda » tire tir rolafa kiren xatckar atcom gubeon me tir gamdakoraf. [1]

Tentura

Xatckar atcom tid lana balumarinda nutisa « tela lodadalafa ke Armena », kottode ordafa gu armenafa yamba [3] ik dace « migaf is arayaf tazuk pilkafa gu Armena ». [4] Xatckar tid « livakoraf ok rontagentimaf atcom [...] balumayan gu tanoya ok konaka gamda do fereon zikexa is dile ayafa vola is kosuteks » [2] Zikexa ke atcom ronon vodjuyun [4] keve taltef abduak [5] is trenaskon [6] balumayan ton seyta [7]. Malsavena raporinda sye tir lizukaf is mildackaf rapor : drelk ok burgi ok andesite ok felsite ok yoot. [8]

Ontine ke xatckar atcom jadion tir vas 1.5 ik 2 m- ; va tulok tis vas 6 m- ( toda ke toloy xatckar evlon gu 1194 koe Aprank koe vema ke Ereznka poke ref Erzincan ) soe trasit [7]. Mante vas miala ke ontine ke xatckar ( vas mialukon 0.5 ik 1.5 m- ) [6] luxeon loviele milvodar ; xatckar atcom ke Julfa ( Nakhichevan ) soe tid radef : ontine jadion tir vas jonbarafe gu mante. [7] Isen pwerte ke atcom tir vas 10 ik 30 cm-. [6]

Toloy ord ke xatckar atcom tid ton pilkovaf tazuk :

  • tewawor xatc ( Թեվավոր խաչ ) : laviuca ke atcom tir ton « gamda dem nutaf meem » [9];
  • ormnapak xatc ( Որմնափակ խաչ, gamda foltenafa gu kijaxa ) ok xatc karamatur ( խաչքար-մատուռ, amudatcom ) : xatckar ko teca amudama zo blonjayad. [7]
Konak ordaf xatckar atcom
Khachgund of Odzun 16.JPG
Aprank or Surb David Monastery Twin Khachkars3.jpg
19082012(011)s.Gevorg.jpg
Artavazik Khachkar.JPG
Սաղմոսավանք2..JPG
Ton prast
Uja ke Odzun,
VII-eafa dec-
Gulaf xatckar atcom ke Aprank, 1194 [7][10]
Xatckar atcom dem nuyaf meem, noeltafa evla,
Surp Gevork ke Mughni[11]
Xatckar amudatcom, Byurakan ( Artavazik ),
XIII-eafa dec-[12][13]
Xatckar amuda, Saghmosavank, 1309 [14][15]

Xatckar atcom tid :

  • lotode, rayan moe snak az fartuyun gu istok [7], moe dile nugevo, koe bumaxo ok poke atayxo ;
  • blonjayan koe rebava ke atayxo ;
  • dzetaf, trabe rontion balumayan koe pist.[1]
Amidaf ordaf xatckar atcom
Sanahin Monastery Armenia 06.JPG
Hripsime detail2.jpg
Geghard - khachkar Proshian church.jpg
Xatckar atcom rayan moe nugevo,
XIII-eafa decemda, Sanahin tucpastaxe [16]
Xatckar atcom blonjayan ( ape XIII-eafa decemda ),
Surp Hripsime, Echmiatsin
Dzetaf xatckar atcom ( 1283 ),
Proshyan uja, Geghard tucpastaxe [17]

Fli

Xatckar atcom baron benelon yordad :

  1. atayesi fli : xatckar mantode tir blikera mu glogagiwara va bundasik ik vuwik ( ordaf tazukoy tir : « bata gamda ta tcelmara va glogagiwara va X... ik vuwikeem pu Lorik zo rayar ») ;
  2. kimbasi fli, loon riafi : xatckar atcom va zabdura ik vegedura ik sayakafa cenera ikz- kimbar ;
  3. djazafi fli, loeke riafi : xatckar yoltkiraf gu tsasman ( Ցասման ) va nendara ok kevotcera va degrik ok tuwavafa zexa zanudar. [1]

Bumaf xatckar atcom wetce ninke ke tawova ok kelda ok jowa dere zo rozanudayad.[18]

Lecuca

Lecuca ke xatckar atcom tir ke intafe sare ke vanblira koe Armena : xatckar tir « cugaca ke intaf enilt »[7], ke dan tentura bak VIII-eafa decemda tujradon gu Hovhannes Katholikos ke Odzun zo tubograr : « tana zolonafa exaksara ke soluma solparsasa va Armena gu ellasafa is latinafa tamava. »[19] Lorafa tuwava ke Kristos bam zo abdufir numen inafa awalkera me zo kaatoer. Sedme Mkhitar Goch rokopik : « Ellasik is sakartvelik va ewava loeke porad voxen armenik va gamda » [20]. Gamda me tir « rejdesiki va Kristos [...] ewava va gamdaytas gerot » vols « bliaal, i leca ke cenera va awalk » [21]. Wetce rayan atcom, « bat xuf vegeduks va remfira ke blisa gaelera co lecar... »

Sedme ewa ke Jean-Pierre Mahé aptacik va kavkazafa vayara :

« Gamda va kudaf aal ke fuda volar, i va bliaal djugrivuteyen gan Adam, vox dere aliapaf uskej lize Kristos wetce enga ke grupera ke Gadikye zo rayar ise zo rumkayar. Zaeeem ke bat aal me tid nyebanaf koe tawa voxe va kelt ticnir ise gan zul dem centa ik kuvime zo vajayar. »[22]

Ison, koe sanefa folira, kot xatckar atcom vas kimi ke Garifa Gamda dogiskir.[1] « Va lanyona kerdelapa ke armenafa aptuca icde swavay is alkolk is listucafa redura cugeke yunker. »[19]

Tere, trenafa adala ke zikexa ke xatckar atcom va « teniskafa bidga [...] veyburesa va bulafa rowinuca is pilkovafo po gu tumtafa sugda » redur.[6]

Izva

Izva ke yamba ke xatckar atcom gu balemoya rekola zo gipular : rekola ke xanta melanafa wali IV-eafa is IX-eafa decemda, az tela ke redura is tazukoyera, az tela wali IX-eafa is XI-eafa decemda, az tela ke tenukera is kotunuca wali XII-eafa is XIII-eafa decemda, az tenafa rekola wali XIV-eafa is XVII-eafa decemda.[23]

Xanta ?

Lan aptacik trakud da xatckar atcom co tid vey prostewa ke abdiizvugal : batinde co tid vey oxileem mali raporey dum tel ke Zorats Karer, don visap raporey ( datcon ice Aragats mefta isu Gegham )[24], is atcom ke Urartu lize gamda dile kevon zo loplekuyud, is kristevaf atcom ke abdiarabaf ugal [5][25], is lanyona briva dum telyona ke Odzun, ke mila rekola.[9]

Savsaf raporey
Zorats Karer 2008, part of the stone circle.jpg
Vishap Mount Aragats.jpg
ArmenianOverUrartu01.jpg
Odzun stele.jpg
Raporey ke Zorats Karer
Vicap raporey
datcon ice Aragats mefta
Gamda keve atcom ke Urartu,
tcilaxe ke Van (Turka)
Briva ke Odzun

Kore bana toloya ironokafa tula va awira ke xatckar atcom rotir yordayad [5] viele Armena gu arabafa felira tici IX-eafa decemda va int tunuyar, pune xatckar va zinera va toloya ra lokase daned, i va bata ra jadifa ( raporaf atcom ) is bana kristevafa vox apton armenafa.

Redura is tazukoyera

Bata rekola wali IX-eafa decemda is toza ke XII-eafa tir tela tazukoyesa va rigotaf nelkoteem abiceke kaikion arapenitin.[7]

Taneaf xatckar atcom bak IX-eafa decemda awid, bak armenaf malblirugal gazon Bagration prostelay [26] radimi arabafa miremba. Sinafa xanta koe taltefa Syunik gola ( re Gegharkunik ) tigir, voxen ko varafa patecta kalion zo mopled aze laninde zo tugolayad.[27] Xatckar atcom rayan koe Garni bak 879 gan Katranide gazikya vey ke Syunik gola is kur- ke Akhot I, wetce tel losavsaf evlakiraf atcom fereon zo atoer.[25] Soe lan xatckar evlakiraf gu 876 koe Hortun ( gola ke Ararat gola ) krulder.[5] Ostik koe Martakert gola, levak ke lanar xatckar atcom re griawiyis tir dem evla vas 853.[4]

Tore atcom tid granaf dem opelafa zikexa.[26] Ticak gitir vizuaf ok anamkamaf. Tanoy ivamuf atcom dere krulder ( vas 1.80 m- koe Talin ). Rontagentimaf tazuk bak anton X-eafa decemda mupewer azen bak toleaf lik ke XII-eafa decemda ticak ton ayaba rotir ta nendara va zikexeem zo tulivar.[5]

986 khatchkar in Mughni.jpg
2014 Prowincja Armawir, Wagharszapat, Chaczkar z 996 roku.jpg
2014 Prowincja Armawir, Wagharszapat, Trzy chaczkary na dziedzińcu przed seminarium duchownym.JPG
Talin, Kuys Sandukht Chapel, round Cross-Stone1.jpg
Xatckar atcom (986), Surp Gevork ke Mughni [28][29]
Xatckar atcom (996) male Noratus, Echmiatsin [16][30]
Savsaf xatckar atcom ( pilkovon tel ronef ),
kabdue Gevorkian alkavayaxe ke Echmiatsin [31]
Ivamuf xatckar atcom
koe Talin [32]

Tore, zikexa opelon tir dem istefa gamda moe nugek dem toloya krilafa toa [33], i moe « ruxaf nazbal » ke gamda.[4] Bata gamdinda latinordafa tir dem tsokaf matek dem fixukorafa otsa kadasa tagra wali X-eafa is XII-eafa decemda, is batinde « vanlaumasa va aflara va ruxafa tuwava ke inta »; bak XII-eafa decemda bata gamda tir dem toloya anamefa gamda vas lopinaf lum ( lana leca ape ke Golgotha ), ok dile balemoya sotre tanoya koe kotu amu.[34] Toloya toa oku toafa gama loviele luxeon tid katanayana gu gluyaxa tite nugek ke gamda az dotolmilon voneyena ton livoda ok tiora, dem otsa ist gamda ; toleafa tola titon dile zo voneyer.[35] Bata tola mali IX-eafa decemda rotir « ton tsenke », arabon turestayana is ape taneatomon awiyisa koe Horodomos tucpastaxo.[36] Leve nugek ke gamda, va ridja ok diemuk ik dace lujor katrasit.[35] Kotak gu tra mali tena ke X-eafa decemda zo kobuder, loviele ton fumekafa skenza moe brivama.[37]

Adre zikes fum [33] ( kuvime is centa ) azu darkasaberopaf [38] awid : mali X-eafa decemda koe alavayaxa [34] is xuta az adre mali XI-eafa decemda keve ludev ke atcom.[39] Ayafa vola kali XII-eafa decemda luxeon metid.[40]

Pelava

Yamba ke xatckar atcom to bak XIII-eafa decemda edaver, nope ota is zikesa kuluca danedisa va cugunaykafa deksuca ke lanyon balumasik.[41]

Rontagentimaf tazuk ke atcom tir preksa ( ivamuf xatckar atcom wan tid riaf ) [42][43] isen istefa gamda tazukarumur ( soe valeveon ) [41]. Warzaf fum awid : krilafa gamda gan nubeem ( tulon xatckar dene Louvre tcila, valeveon ) ok dace pandeem rotikaplekus va toloya toa [35] dile zo bured. Kali XV-eafa decemda, volas kaatoeks keve snak vonewed : Kristos ton aliuca vanmiae pumkik ok balemoy blisik, ok nakila ke Evangil, ok firvisik okz-.[44][45] Aname istefa gamda bak XIII-eafa decemda dere awid : taka ke Kristos tice gamda zo kaatoer isen tela ke Adam titeon.[40] Fum va gamdaytara moe istefa gamda dere vanblir neke zavzar riaf gu abic atcom tici XIII-eafa decemda. Lana inda yoltkirafa gu Amenaprkich ( Ամէնափրկիչ, « Giwasik va kottan ») keve ant balemoy atcom ke 1270-e sanda valente patecta zo gruper [46], nitesa vas kaatoera va solgamdara dem Nikodemos soltioltes va cepta is Ketya is Yohannes grekik is Yosep Atto Arimatayas.[42] Sanefa folira va selasa tegira ke bata atcominda kaxaar nume gu teco tumtaxo al torigiyir.[47]

Amenaprkich xatckar atcom
Stèle funéraire ornée d'une croix, Arménie.jpg
Khachkar Haghpat 01.jpg
Kachkar at Echmiadzin Cathedral, Armenia.jpg
Chgnavori Khach, Marts 30 cropped.jpg
Xatckar atcom, tici XII-eafa decemda, Arinj, firviyin bak 1976 gan TSSS Xayastana pu Louvre tcila [48][49]
Amenaprkich xatckar atcom, 1273, koe Haghpat tucpastaxe [39][50]
Amenaprkich xatckar atcom koe Cugingöl, Vayots Dzor, 1279, nendoyen koe Echmiatsin [51][52]
Amenaprkich xatckar atcom koe Marts, 1285 [42][53]

Nugek ke gamda, dem toloya toa, luxeon re gitir gluyanaf gu maserk ( gluyanaf imwakiraf nugek ) ok kenda ( kendakiraf imwakiraf nugek ) ok dace lefereon mecoba ( griuzianaf imwakiraf nugek ) [41]; abictode gu imwakirafa taya zo ikaplekuyur.[42] Ware bak XIII-eafa decemda, titak ke gamda wan vonewer : fetinte tuwalzawer [35], ton tec gamdakoraf poz [39]; va kaatoeks va awalkik ok firvisik ton tcabanes okollakisik dere rokatrasir.[45] Tra aname buneks milugale vanpir arbenafa tra ok kaikion traga [39] ok dace jonvidilaca. Dile dace giskisa brivama griawid.[40]

Jadion, gedrucapa ke zikexa va pulasa yovara tuesar.[41] Konaka serna darimon gu XIII-eafa is XIV-eafa decemda soe zo rowaltrakud : tela ke Vayots Dzor ( koe tulon Noravank ) dem Momik, adalafa gu pintotafa skura va kadimefa zikexa kan imust, is tela ke Artsakh ( koe Dadivank is Gtishavank ) kum dugaf ugot ( nusamaf drelk ) dem zikexa otsakirafa gamda keve livafa toakoraca dem blisik : kumzilis Kristos ok talas pumkik [42], ok tela ke Gugark.[54] Geeon is talteon va serna ke ontinafa Armena katrasit, dem tulok vas cugon 5 m- fereon zikenaf gu gelang, is va tela ke Rshtunik ( gee Van uzda ) dem toakoraca is birtafa roda turestayana gan turkamongolafa warzera ke Ahlat, is va tela ke Vaspurakan dem vierdapafa zikexa, is va tela ke Bznunik ( talte Van uzda ) warzesa va xatckar atcom vas fereon loon 4 m-.[55]

Geghard - Khatchkar 1213-2.jpg
Khatchkar at Goshavank Monastery in Armenia.jpg
Momik.jpg
Хачкары Дадиванка.jpg
Xatckar atcom koe uja ke Geghard tucpastaxe, balumayan bak 1213 gan Timot is Mkhitar [56][57]
Xatckar atcom kabdue Surp Grigor Lusavorish uja ke Goshavank tucpastaxo, balumayan bak 1291 gan Poghos [58][59]
Xatckar atcom ke Noravank tucpastaxo, balumayan bak 1308 gan Momik, nendoyen koe Echmiatsin [60]
Toloy xatckar atcom ke biot ke Dadivank, 1283 [61][62]

Tenafa rekola

Tolgenira ke Selçuk az tela mongolafa va yamba va xatckar atcom nonupur, voxen prostewa bak XVI-eafa is XVII-eafa decemda zo ginur viele patecta gu persafa Armena isu turkafa zo solzarter.[63] Xatckar ke bana rekola va caxaf atcom anton zanudackad nume mea tid kan skureka ke mialukugal isen zikexa tir opelackafa [64] is namafa maneke tutankomawer ise tuvierdawer.[63] Soe bak XVII-eafa is XVIII-eafa decemda, bocafa jebesa rekola dilizer, niedason va « lana kaikvajara is ckanefa deksuca vanfisa va Barocco ask ».[65]

Konaka serna gire solwikad : lana serna kene domega ke Van uzda tici XVI-eafa decemda awir, adalafa gu « wiltkirapaf » atcom dem mapeem bene istefa gamda ; serna ke taltef Syunik gu blisikaf xatckar atcom dem volas kaatoeks yunkes va gedrafa bifa ke blira ke Kristos solwikar ; serna ke Por poke Bitlis va tela ke Bznunik dakir, voneson va atcom riwe lujoraf is zikeyen gu Malta gamda.[65] Gamdakoraf xatckar atcom wan tid riaf.[66]

Xatckar atcom ke tenafa rekola
Sevanavank khatchkar.jpg
Khatchkar from Jugha-2.jpg
Khachkar from Old Djugha 1602 img 6933.jpg
Xatckar atcom koe Surp Astvatsatsin ke Sevanavank tucpastaxo, balumayan bak 1653 gan Trdat ; pona tir dem lana nakila titfisa van kusto, is gamdaytara ( isteon ), is Kristos ( ticeon ) [67][68]
Xatckar atcom ke Julfa, balumayan bak 1601, nendoyen koe Echmiatsin [69]
Xatckar atcom ke Yovhannes oluik [69] ke Julfa, balumayan bak 1602 gan Grigor, nendoyen koe Echmiatsin [70][71]

Tela losposafa serna ke bana rekola tir tela ke Julfa ( XVI-eafa ik XVIII-eafa decemda ) [63] koe Nakhichevan gola. Tulon awalkikxo ke Julfa vas 10000 atcom titi XX-eafa decemda azu ware 3000 abdi vilara va debak gan Azera ruldayar. Ban xatckar atcom gan iranafa yamba zo turestackayad.[63] Balumayan kum keraf drelk, tid lemantaf is dem kabotsakorafa xuta ; va tanoya gamda oku balemoya koxutayana dikid isen ayaba tir zikeyena.[66] Dakison va prostewa, jafasik ton tcabanes okollakisik fereon zo kaatoer ise tite atcom ok keve atcomafo nugevo va gamda dile burer.[72]

Tela ironokafa solwikasa serna tir tela ke Vaspurakan ( tici XVIII-eafa decemda ), adalafa gu lumamaf xatckar atcom dile balumayan kum batakafa trilna.[66]

Ckane

Raporxa kan luzikasiki zo nyofad, i kan gemafa fujema ok myelga ik dace uul kopistes va lava ko rapor [73] az kan bixe zo nirad ise kan zo kuritcafa giroda ok kalka tugemad aze tere gu ling zo besad.[74]

Ckane mal tavesik kal tavembik zo dear ok konolerokon.[74]

Kosuteks

Jontik xatckar atcom tid dem kosuteks divnedis va fli loviele syofayani : tela raporinda lidam divaykara va atcom rowin gan jontiktan noved.[75] Uncialerkatagir ) suterinda mali XI-eafa decemda, va meyunkeyen pak ( doma is icuk ikz- ) is dace dile krileem ke atcom isu radimak besar lize krent jontiktode tir abrotcaf.[76] Kosuteks loviele zo gretcad voxe dile tid fetintef nume va listuca ke atcom paked.[75] Mali acku ke XIII-eafa decemda kali toza ke XIV-eafa decemda, gu imwaf cualaks isu fum zo yunked.[76] Ison kotviele ayafa vola awid, pune pilkoma zo razdad.[76]

Bat kosuteks tid tciamaf gu deana giva ordon gu izva ik avopa ik selt ik skapa ikz- ; ison va evla ke atcom fereon razdad, is va dace dile vegedurevla ke kimbana cugexa.[76] Mali XIII-eafa decemda, yolt ke balumasik dile zo miwar.[77]

Ostik kosuteks icde miv atcom givad. Taneon razdad da xatckar trogarn bak mialukugal vugviele zo kofaver : « gamda » trogarn oku « sugda » oku dace « sugda ke Lorik » zo uned.[76] Dere nedid da xatckar gu yolt ke tumtik fereon zo yoltar numen batcoba alutar da atcom rotir zo ziliyayad.[76]

Kosuteks keve xatckar atcom
All-Savior cross-stone 04, detail.jpg
All-Savior cross-stone, detail.jpg
Khacqar in Haxpat 16.JPG
Կեչառիս 24.jpg
Խաչքար Աստվածածին Սբ. Նշան, Մաստարա, ArmAg (5).JPG
Amenaprkich xatckar atcom ke 1279. Bareafa ironokafa conya bazecked : « Va Mamikon oluik saal !!».[75]
Amenaprkich xatckar atcom ke 1279. Mamikon oluik wetce jafasik zo miwar.[75]
Radimak ke Amenaprkich xatckar atcom ke 1273.
Xatckar atcom ke Vetsik balumasik inde kosuteks keve titak miwar, 1212, Kecharis tucpastaxo.[76][78]
Xatckar ke Mastara, moni 1210, yoltayan male kosuteks : « Tumtafa Sugda eroyaf loraf ak ».[76][79]

Awalkikxo dem xatckar atcom

Lokotgrupafo awalkikxo dem xatckar atcom tid koe Noratus is Julfa is dere Gavar is Vardenis is Martuni.[63]

Awalkikxo dem xatckar atcom koe Noratus
Noratus Khachkars3.jpg
379 Noradouz Plusieurs khatchkars.JPG

Noratus

→ Teliz : Noratus

Awalkikxo moe tawavo ke Noratus tawadayafa doda koe Gegharkunik utca [80] arte 90 km- lente Yerevan kelu ke Xayastana kentalte Sevan uzda.[81]

Vas 728 xatckar atcom ke IX-eafa ik XVI-eafa decemda ruldar [63] ise tir telo logijafo awalkikxo ke witafa Xayastana.[80] Tel losavsaf atcom tir evlakiraf gu 996 [81] isen awalkikxo vas katcalafa belca dem gavef xatckar atcom dere ruldar.[82]

Julfa

Awalkikxo dem xatckar atcom koe Julfa
Julfa-khachkars.jpg
Khachkar from Old Djugha 1602, 1603 img 6947.jpg
Pakaf wiks va awalkikxo ke Julfa bak 1915
Xatckar atcom ke Julfa, XVI-eafa decemda, nendoyen koe Echmiatsin
→ Teliz : Julfa

Tigixo ke awalkikxo mone Julfa widava [83] koe Nakhichevan sokasane ( Vaspurakan izvafa winka ke Armena ) koe Azera jowon ice Irana.[84] Welmot ke awalkikxo tiyir 1600 m² kale Aras kuksa moe baroyi kesi.[83]

Bato awalkikxo tiyir telo logijafo dem xatckar atcom koe izvafa Armena [45] ( 10000 olkoy titi XX-eafa decemda az ware 3000 abdi vilara ) [85] Lo atcom kum keraf drelk, ontinaf is tiguaf tiyir evlaf gu tena ke XVI-eafa decemda ik toza ke XVIII-eafa ise tiyid warzeks ke aptolafa serna.[66] Tel losavsaf soe tiyir ke 1160 [86] isen konakar ke tena ke XV-eafa decemda.[87] Isen yonar kali XVIII-eafa decemda zo epuyud.[63]

Vilara va awalkikxo kaiki sovietafa rekola bak 1998 zo bokar viele 800 xatckar atcom zo grivegedud voxen sopura nope kevotcera ke UNESCO zo nonur.[88] Wori awalkikxo bak 2002 ik 2003 kan « vilasa sopura azedena gan bowere ke Azera » zo kalvilar, i kan sopura elpatayana is afigasuteyena male jowa ke Irana.[89] Bata vilara tir olkom ke azerafa sugara va armenafa izvafa tigira koe Nakhichevan.[90]

Xatckar bak rekeugal

Koe Xayastana

Ota ke xatckar atcomeem zo rotuldinejer [91], voxen trakut da mon 40000 koe sokasane ke Xayastana wan tid.[91] UNESCO grustaks va kotak vas alub-kunoy koe sutelaks dakter.[74]

Mwa ke 11/04/2013 va xatckar atcom koe loma dem izvafa bedablafa kiewega pular, i dem kiewega torigina gu pilkaca ke sokasane ke Xayastana num meroripindana.[92]

Yon tulokany den Izvafa Tcila ke Armena koe Yerevan is anam wevala ke Echmiatsin zo arbureyed ( tulon lan xatckar atcom ke 991 ke Noratus is lanar ke 1291 ke Goshavank ).[93] Debak ruldas va lo atcom koe Xayastana re tir awalkikxo ke Noratus.

Epura va xatckar atcom nelkon caxaf mali 1960-e sanda koe Xayastana al zo ginur, voxen warzaf grabom va atcom ke mialukugal me rotukevlad. Va balumasik va xatckar atcom koe Yerevan rowit.

Refa epura va xatckar atcom
Stone carver Khachkar.jpg
Խաչքարի արհեստանոց.JPG
Khachkar carver, Ijevan.png
Yambik epus va xatckar atcom, Yerevan
Balumaxo ke yambik va xatckar atcom, Yerevan
Yambik epus va xatckar atcom, Ijevan

Koe Artsakh

Wetce pakava ke izvafa Armena, Artsakh gola vas jontik xatckar atcom ruldar.[4]

Vayaks va xatckar atcom

Circle-icons-bookshelf.svg
Vayaks is teliz icde xatckar atcom
Armeniancrossstone.jpg

 

  • (en) Gohar Abrahamyan, Armenian khachkar art on UNESCO’s list of intangible cultural heritage of humanity, ArmeniaNow.com, 18/11/2010.
  • (hy, ru, en) Levon Azarian, Խաչքարեր / Хачкары : Armenian Khatchkars, Yerevan, Ed. Erebuni,‎ 1978, 213 bu (ASIN B000TD1OSK)
  • (en) Jurgis Baltrušaitis is Dickran Kouymjian, Julfa on the Arax and its funerary monuments, koe Dickran Kouymjian, Armenian Studies, Lisboa, Calouste Gilbenkian Foundation, 1986, bu 9-53.
  • (fr) Jean Chevalier is Alain Gheerbrant, Dictionnaire des symboles, Paris, Ed. Laffont/Jupiter, coll. « Bouquins », 1995, 1060 bu (ISBN 978-2-221-50319-5).
  • (fr) Sirarpie Der Nersessian, L'art arménien, Paris, Flammarion, coll. « Arts et métiers graphiques », 1977, 272 bu (ISBN 2-7004-0027-5).
  • (fr) Patrick Donabédian is Jean-Michel Thierry, Les arts arméniens, Paris, Ed. Mazenod, 1987, 623 bu (ISBN 2-85088-017-5).
  • (en) Patrick Donabédian, The History of Karabagh from Antiquity to the Twentieth Century, koe Levon Chorbajian, Patrick Donabedian, Claude Mutafian, The Caucasian Knot: The History and Geopolitics of Nagorno-Karabagh, Zed Books Ltd, 1994 (ISBN 978-1856492881), bu 51-109.
  • (fr) Patrick Donabédian, Le khatchkar, koe Jannic Durand, Ioanna Rapti is Dorota Giovannoni, Armenia sacra — Mémoire chrétienne des Arméniens (IVe – XVIIIe siècle), Paris, Somogy / Musée du Louvre, 2007 (ISBN 978-2-7572-0066-7), bu 153-175, bu 310-322
  • (fr) Patrick Donabédian, Les inscriptions lapidaires sur les khatchkars, koe Claude Mutafian, Arménie, la magie de l'écrit, Paris, Somogy, 2007 (ISBN 978-2-7572-0057-5), bu 200-203.
  • (fr) Patrick Donabédian, Le khatchkar, un art emblématique de la spécificité arménienne, koe Isabelle Augé is Gérard Dédéyan, L’Église arménienne entre Grecs et Latins, fin XIe - milieu XVe siècle, Paris, Geuthner, 2009 (ISBN 978-2705338183), bu 151-168.
  • (fr) Patrick Donabédian, Les khatchkars, koe Dickran Kouymjian is Claude Mutafian, Artsakh / Karabagh : Jardin des arts et des traditions arméniens, Paris, Somogy éditions d'art, 2011 (ISBN 978-2-7572-0455-9), bu 85-103.
  • (fr) Nina Garsoïan, Indépendance retrouvée : royaume du Nord et royaume du Sud (IXe – XIe siècle) — Le royaume du Nord, koe Gérard Dédéyan, Histoire du peuple arménien, Toulouse, Privat, 2007 (1re éd. 1982) (ISBN 978-2-7089-6874-5), bu 243-274.
  • (fr) Vigen Ghazarian, Les « Commentaires des Tables des Canons comme sources arméniennes médiévales de la théorie de l'art ornemental, koe Claude Mutafian, Arménie, la magie de l'écrit, Paris, Somogy, 2007 (ISBN 978-2-7572-0057-5), bu 111-117.
  • (en) Julia Hakobyan, Life in the Monuments of Death: A visit to the cemetery village, Noratus, dene ArmeniaNow.com, 12/09/2003.
  • (en) Robert H. Hewsen, Armenia : A historical Atlas, Chicago is London, The University of Chicago Press, 2001 (ISBN 0-226-33228-4).
  • (en) O. Kh. Khalpakhchian, Architectural Ensembles of Armenia, 8 c. B.C. - 19 A.D., Moskva, State Mutual Book & Periodical Service, 1980.
  • (fr) Edmond Khayadjian, Archag Tchobanian et le mouvement arménophile en France, Centre national de documentation pédagogique, 1986.
  • (en) John Brady Kiesling, Rediscovering Armenia : An Archaeological/Touristic Gazetteer and Map Set for the Historical Monuments of Armenia, Yerevan, 2009, 71 bu.
  • (en) Dickran Kouymjian, Sculpture, koe The Arts of Armenia, Lisboa, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, 1992.
  • (fr) Dickran Kouymjian, Architecture et sculpture, les derniers feux, koe Jannic Durand, Ioanna Rapti is Dorota Giovannoni, Armenia sacra — Mémoire chrétienne des Arméniens (IVe – XVIIIe siècle), Paris, Somogy / Musée du Louvre, 2007 (ISBN 978-2-7572-0066-7), bu 366-384.
  • (fr) Jean-Pierre Mahé, Christologie et spiritualité dans le Caucase, Bulletin de l'Association française des amis de l'Orient, vol. 45,‎ 2000, bu 11-16.
  • (fr) Jean-Pierre Mahé, Le christianisme arménien avant et après l’islam : rupture et modernité, koe Jannic Durand, Ioanna Rapti is Dorota Giovannoni, Armenia sacra — Mémoire chrétienne des Arméniens (IVe – XVIIIe siècle), Paris, Somogy / Musée du Louvre, 2007 (ISBN 978-2-7572-0066-7), bu 115-120.
  • (fr) Sèda Mavian, Arménie, Paris, Hachette, coll. « Guides Évasion », 2006, 286 bu (ISBN 978-2-01-240509-7).
  • (fr) Rouben Mélik, La poésie arménienne : anthologie des origines à nos jours, Paris, Les Éditeurs français réunis, 1973.
  • (en) Rick Ney, Lori marz, Tour Armenia, 2007, 65 bu.
  • (en) Richard L. Ney, The Gift of Stone, Tour Armenia.
  • (fr) Hamlet Petrosyan, La sculpture médiévale arménienne et les khatchkar : pierres-croix, koe Gabriella Uluhogian, Boghos Levon Zekiyan, Vartan Karapetian, Arménie : Impressions d'une civilisation, Milano, Skira, 2011, bu 69-75.
  • (en) Sarah Pickman, Tragedy on the Araxes, dene Archaelogy, Archaeological Institute of America, 30/06/2006.
  • (en) Lisa Siraganian, Telling a Horror Story, Conscientiously: Representing the Armenian Genocide from Open House to Ararat, koe Jennifer Lise Burwell is Monique Tschofen, Image and territory : Essays on Atom Egoyan, Waterloo, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2007, bu 133-156.
  • (en) Alexander Sosnowski, The Georgia Syndrome, Mauer Verlag, 2011, 186 bu (ISBN 978-3-86812-253-4).
  • (en) Frederick Starr, The Legacy of History in Russia and the New States of Eurasia, M. E. Sharpe, 1994 (ISBN 978-1-56324-353-0).
  • (fr) Nicole Thierry, Le temps de la croisade (fin XIe -fin XIVe siècle) — L'éclosion artistique des XIIIe et XIVe siècles, koe Gérard Dédéyan, Histoire du peuple arménien, Toulouse, Privat, 2007 (1re éd. 1982) (ISBN 978-2-7089-6874-5), bu 362-375.

Vuestexa

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 et 1,4 Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 123
  2. 2,0 et 2,1 Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 613
  3. Der Nersessian 1977, bu 192
  4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 4,3 et 4,4 Donabédian 2011, bu 87
  5. 5,0 5,1 5,2 5,3 et 5,4 Donabédian 2007, bu 154
  6. 6,0 6,1 6,2 et 6,3 Petrosyan 2011, bu72.
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 7,3 7,4 7,5 7,6 et 7,7 Donabédian 2007, bu 153
  8. Donabédian 2007, bu 313
  9. 9,0 et 9,1 Donabédian 2007, bu 155.
  10. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  11. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  12. Kiesling 2000, bu 15
  13. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  14. Azarian 1978, n° 52
  15. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  16. 16,0 et 16,1 Kouymjian 1992
  17. Khalpakhchian 1980
  18. Donabédian 2007, bu 161
  19. 19,0 et 19,1 Donabédian 2009, bu 151
  20. Donabedian 2009, bu 154
  21. Donabedian 2009, bu 156
  22. Mahé, 2000, bu 15
  23. Azarian 1978, bu 29 is 31
  24. Azarian 1978, bu 27
  25. 25,0 et 25,1 Donabédian et Thierry 1987, bu 124
  26. 26,0 et 26,1 Garsoyan 2007, bu 264
  27. Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 124
  28. Donabédian 2007, bu 162
  29. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  30. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  31. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  32. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  33. 33,0 et 33,1 Der Nersessian 1977, bu 194
  34. 34,0 et 34,1 Donabédian 2007, bu 156
  35. 35,0 35,1 35,2 et 35,3 Donabédian 2007, bu 157
  36. Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 168
  37. Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 158
  38. Der Nersessian 1977, bu 195
  39. 39,0 39,1 39,2 et 39,3 Donabédian 2007, bu 158
  40. 40,0 40,1 et 40,2 Donabédian 2007, bu 159
  41. 41,0 41,1 41,2 et 41,3 Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 205
  42. 42,0 42,1 42,2 42,3 et 42,4 Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 206
  43. Afigasuteks va atcom
  44. Der Nersessian 1977, bu 199
  45. 45,0 45,1 et 45,2 Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 160
  46. Donabédian 2007, bu 160
  47. Azarian 1978, bu 29
  48. Donabédian 2007, bu 172
  49. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  50. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  51. Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 245
  52. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  53. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  54. Donabédian 2007, bu 12
  55. Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 262
  56. Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 579
  57. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  58. Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 531
  59. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  60. Thierry 2007, bu 366
  61. Donabédian 2011, bu 98
  62. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  63. 63,0 63,1 63,2 63,3 63,4 63,5 et 63,6 Azarian 1978, bu 31
  64. Der Nersessian 1977, bu 242
  65. 65,0 et 65,1 Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 312
  66. 66,0 66,1 66,2 et 66,3 Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 313
  67. Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 574
  68. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  69. 69,0 et 69,1 Donabédian is Thierry 1987, bu 434
  70. Azarian 1978, bu 196
  71. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  72. Donabédian 2007, bu 311
  73. Ney, « How They Were Made, What to Look For »
  74. 74,0 74,1 et 74,2 « L’art des croix de pierre arméniennes. Symbolisme et savoir-faire des Khachkars », dene UNESCO internetxo
  75. 75,0 75,1 75,2 et 75,3 Donabédian 2007, bu 200
  76. 76,0 76,1 76,2 76,3 76,4 76,5 76,6 et 76,7 Donabédian 2007, bu 203
  77. Azarian 1978, bu 30
  78. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  79. Afigasuteks dene Commons
  80. 80,0 et 80,1 Mavian 2006, bu 175
  81. 81,0 et 81,1 Hakobyan 2003
  82. Kouymjian 2007, bu 370
  83. 83,0 et 83,1 « The History and Art of the Djulfa Cemetery », dene Djulfa Virtual Memorial and Museum
  84. Baltrušaitis is Kouymjian 1986, bu 9-10
  85. Donabédian 2007, bu 314
  86. Kouymjian 2007, bu 371
  87. Kouymjian 2007, bu 370
  88. « ICOMOS World Report 2002-2003 on monuments and sites in danger (Azerbaijan)», dene ICOMOS
  89. Petrosyan 2011, bu 75
  90. Pickman 2006
  91. 91,0 et 91,1 Ney, « A Perfect Form: 13th-14th centuries »
  92. (hy) « ՀԱՅԱՍՏԱՆԻ ՀԱՆՐԱՊԵՏՈՒԹՅԱՆ ՕՐԵՆՔԸ ՀԱՅԱՍՏԱՆԻ ՀԱՆՐԱՊԵՏՈՒԹՅԱՆ ՊԵՏԱԿԱՆ ՍԵՓԱԿԱՆՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ ՀԱՄԱՐՎՈՂ ԵՎ ՕՏԱՐՄԱՆ ՈՉ ԵՆԹԱԿԱ ՊԱՏՄՈՒԹՅԱՆ ԵՎ ՄՇԱԿՈՒՅԹԻ ԱՆՇԱՐԺ ՀՈՒՇԱՐՁԱՆՆԵՐԻ ՄԱՍԻՆ », dene Vedeyafa Koka ke sokasane ke Xayastana,‎ 11/04/2003
  93. « Armenian Sculptural Reliefs », dene History Museum of Armenia
Yamba ke armenafa gamdaraporxa ; leceva is grupaskira ke xatckar atcom
UNESCO-ICH-blue.svg Meugafa arayafa gadakiewega ke UNESCO
Khatchkar sirun xatc ( Listafa gamda ), XIII-eafa decemda, mone Dsegh
KIRA
Tawavaf seg Europa
Patecta Xayastana   Flag of Armenia.svg     
Vexala Matcafa vexala
Bendesa ilana 2010
Winugafa pimtara ke UNESCO [1]

Yamba ke armenafa gamdaraporxa ; leceva is grupaskira ke xatckar atcom.

Xatckar tir atcom ridon rayana is balumayana kum rapor gan yambudik koe Armena ok vanmiae doda ke armenaf divlamasikeem. Va atayaf aveg is kimbasa raporxa is senteja satcon zanudar ise va golera wal meloraf ind isu loraf tudrikar.
Ontine ke xatckar atcom tir vas cugon 1.5 m- isen balumayana gamda ton zikexa daykesa moe leca ke awalt ok kotabek do darkasaberopaf fum balumayan kum rapor is kaatoes va ruxa ik sulem ik koredik tigir.
Xatckar kum rapor ke gola gubeon zo ilbodeyer ise kan luzikasiki is sadja ik fujema is myelga zo balumayar. Azon balumayan fum kan bixeme zo nirayad. Arbeksam is mebelaca kum kuritcafa giroda ik kalka zo vreparleyed aze kotak zo lingeyer.
Moi kalskura, xatckar atcom bal alkafa fiptarama zo koinkeyer. Kumziliyin is ziliyayan, xatckar atcom vuroler dis va tumtafi roti is ropomas ik ronendas ik rocenes ik rokseras va blirapa ok namira ok walara va giwara va gloga.

Kot katckar atcom ke lo 50000 koe Armena va intafa pona dir nume mek tir oltavaf gu betar. Grupaskira va xatckar yason ok wal tavesik is tavembik zo dear, kotaveson va prostewafa nuva isu fum is bristuson va golafa pilkovuca is pilkafa luwira.