Erebuni

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Erebuni ralma (armenavon Էրեբունի) tir ralma ke Urartu tigisa koe Yerevan refa widava koe Armena. Gan Argishti I bak -782 AGJ volmiv zo vegeduyur ise gejopon is nendason yordayar. [1] Inafe ontine tir vas 1017 m- vamoe bireka. [2] Tiyir tana jontika ralma kolnayana keve lentefa jowa koe Ararat krant ise tan lozolonaf gaderopaf is skapaf is arayaf aveg ke gazaxo. Yerevan witaf yolt tir vey Erebuni. [3] Bak -VI-eafa decemda AGJ nope dratcera ke Persa zo jovleyer. Radimi felira ke Persa, folkayenafa widava zo vulkuyur. Tici XIX-eafa decemda gire zo kosmayar. Yerevan tir kelu ke Armena mali 1918 moi Taneafa Tamavageja az mali tena ke TSSS bak 1991. Erebuni tir tana lerdoya losavsafa ralma ke tamava. [4]

Izva

Erebuni gan Argishti I gazik bak -782 AGJ zo zabduyur. [5] Tice venta yoltkirafa gu Arin Berd vamoe azeka ke Aras kuksa zo vegeduyur, zanudatason va sayakafa ralma is nendatason va lentefa jowa ke Urartu gazaxo. [6] Ton « envayana wetce ristulaf is alkaf avegap dem gazapafu kelu » zo pimtayar. [7] Sedme Margarit Israelyan, Argishti I gazik va vegedura va Erebuni bokayar radimida va gola lente Yerevan is talte Sevan uzda al levrotiyir. Daginik gralomeyen ( ayikye lidam ayikya ) bal banyon tawuk ta vegedura va widava zo malsaveyed. [8]

Bal rawopafa brinuga stayana gan Konstantin Hovhannisyan armenaf opik bak 1950, toloy rapor dem simbakoraf kosuteks koe Arin Berd zo kosmayad, don bata froyasa va zabdura va ewavon bak gazugal ke Argishti I is bana icde vegedura va olkxe gan Sarduri II nazbeikye is direik. [9] Argishti va oltavaf kosuteks koe Tushpa aru kelu ke gazaxo iskeyer, i va kosuteks miwas da va 6600 gejaf daginik ke Khate is Tsupani askiyir, frofatason va warzafa widava. [10]

Larde jontik xim tiskis va Erebuni kosuteks, bal joxara koe Teishebani vegungafa widava zo trasiyid, pune etrakara va ageltafa tigira ke Erebuni koe Arin Berd lanviele awiyid : rotir pozla kosmayana gan Hovhannisyan bak 1950 moe venta xuye tigiyir. Arti anyustda, bak 1958, kevudara tere zo tenekayar isen areldafa sazdara zo gruyeyer : bal rawopafa joxara, ar kosuteks spaf ke Argishti I icde zabdura va Erebuni keve jola aykayana bene savsafa rebava zo kosmayar. Batkane mali 1958 gruyera va tigira ke Erebuni moe Arin-Berd venta en tir. [11][12]

Kosuteks kosmayan icde vegedura va Erebuni gan Argishti I gazik
Urartian Tablet03.jpg Urartian tablet of Argishti I.jpg
Kosuteks kosmayan bak 1950
Kosuteks kosmayan bak 1958

Erebuni dum aryona widava ke Urartu ke bane sare kare bargentimaf zovdom vawale ontinafa rebava vas 10-12 m- ticeon zo vegeduyur. Kadimeon kolna tigiyid voke yona istefa is koefa rebava tisa kum burgi ik drelk ik inta ik tawot. [13] Argishti va bermapa vegeduyur isen joxara va seg va aryone katcalafe xe don brivakirafa magafa bonta is dopawa tarizana gu Haldi is virutsayana ralma is vreda is kenibexo is emaxo kosmayad. [14] Koefa rebava gu lingeks va alkafa ok mealkafa nakila kulon zo yunkeyed. [15]

Diref gazik ke Urartu va Erebuni wetce sokexo bal sayakaf tawuk kev lentef volnik faveyed nume va migexasa vegedura va ralma wan malskuyud. [16] Sarduri I az Rusa I va Erebuni wetce greelt ta levrotira va lentexo dere faveyed. [17]

Bak -735 AGJ Sarduri II gan Tiglat-Pileser III Assur gazik vatalte patecta zo ceneyer numen bata surtera tiyir viank ke izva ke Urartu viele va roti is digiks toz drasuyur. Isen azon bak gazugal ke Rusa I nazbeik, nobafa dilfura ke Kimmeroy lentronu gazaxo ko Ararat krant va tutenara va skapafa tegira is diliokafa vonera nekiyid. Ristulafa fabdura zo skuyud numen zolonuca ke Erebuni joke vegungafi Argishtikhinili irutaweyer. [18]

Gola gan Haxāmanišiya gindaxo kalion zo feliayar. Gejopafa debala ke Erebuni soe me irutaweyer numen vanpiyir zolonaf aveg ke bowesik ke Armena. [19][20]

Nekev jontika tolgenira gan azafa divefa gijarotiaca, widava me zo jovleyer ise remi yona direfa decemda dun tiyir saneliakirafa, tere divlizeyeson can ralma. Batcoba di vanpiyir Yerevan widava. [21][22] Bak lerdeaksat ke 1968 kimbara va 2750-eaf ilanuk ke zabdura va Erebuni kadayasi Yerevan zo fiptayar. [23]

Vegeduropa

Divak

Vegedura va bargentimafe dre ke Erebuni ralma tice Arin Berd venta ontinon gu 65 metre, moe jadifa darka vas mon anyustoy iray, ton gejopafa debala vamoe azeka ke Ararat is nelkafa joya vansasa va widaki. [24] Anameon rebavapa kum granafa jola zo vegeduyur. Ekwa tir ontinafa gu toloye metre azen moeon rebava vas 7 ik 8 metre kum tawotafa norka is giskis sekol vas aluboye metre sotre tanoy jon anyustoye metre. Dalafo kolanixo ke ralma gan ontinaf rasek zo nendayar. Va idjaf kusk ke ralma vas 14 x 17 m- stayar.

Divefa rebavega
Erebuni101.jpg Erebuni112.jpg Erebuni111.jpg
Divefa rebava dem sekol ton kaikak
Gentimot ke geefa rebava
Dre ke rebava : ekwa kum rapor
az moeon tawotafa norka

Dopewa ke Haldi

Alkaf pakak getalte kuks tigiyir ise taneon tiyir dopewa tarizayana gu Haldi lorik, i tana lokatcalafa is logijafa dopewa pakon videnafa ke Urartu. [25] Dopewa tiyir dem fogelom stas va kepaita ke zigurat rasek, is dem krilafa olkoba moe daref vegem. Bana olkoba vawale fenkunaf trist dem san-toloya intafa briva kougayana gu rapor is starka kene rebava tigiyir. Keve taltefa rebava tanoy muxelk ta wetara is migafa fipta tigir. Rebava gu ksevafa lenopa kaatoesa va ayafa vola is lorik is darkasaberopaf ik imwaf fum zo yunkeyed. Tan kosmayan lingeks va Haldi lorik ranyes moe krapol kaatoer, i va ordafa nakila volasa va bat lorik. Sid ke dopewa va arak ke birtey kevaxapar kire kum intaf azebam zo epuyur solve sid ke kotara bonta ke widaki tiyir kum kuritca moe tawot. Bak Haxāmanišiya rekola, bat lik ke dopewa ke Haldi lorik skapon zo malsaveyer solve ban lik tiyir pak ke apadana bonta. [26]

Malvegeduks koe dopewa ke Erebuni
Erevan - La forteresse d'Erébouni 03.JPG Erevan - La forteresse d'Erébouni 04.JPG Erebuni103.jpg
Malvegeduks va tanoy pak
ke kuskot ke Haldi lorik
Malvegeduks va ewava va Haldi lorik
Malvegeduks va kolanixo ke Sushi dopewa

Dopewa ke Sushi

Simbakoraf kosuteks koe kolanixo
ke dopewa ke Sushi. Kosmara bak 1956.
Urartu Cuniform Argishti 1.jpg

Ivarsha lorik koe bata mona Sushi, nazbeikye ke Menua, vegeduyur, Argishti al kalir : xo ke bata vema tiyir vlardafo, mecoba tiyir kolnayana. Argishti, gijarotif gazik, gazapik, gazik ke Biainili patecta, nafalik ke Tushpa wid. [27]

Dopewa ke Sushi tiyir rontagentimafa olkoba dem koef lum vas 5.05 x 8.08 m- is divef lum vas 10 x 13.45 m-. Gu abicote worasik zo vankolayar. Muxelk koe ludev ke bonta tigir ; dopewa malu ticef remak dere zanudayas va divbulura va vikiz ke wetara zo koafir. Koefa rebava tiyid zikeyena gu lingeks. Voke kolanis tuvel va dopewa, simbakoraf kosuteks dem pinta ke inafa vegedura gan Argishti I gazik is tarizayan gu Ivarsha lorik tiyid. Bak Haxāmanišiya sare, dopewa ton persaf martig di zo malvegeduyur. [11][28]

Gazafa berma

Pak ke gazafa berma felisa va Ararat mefta talteon getalte kril ke kolanis tuvel tigir. Berma gan yon gazik ke Urartu ape jontikviele zo worayar. Lum ke dalafa bonta tir vas 17 x 7.5 m-, dem intafa kepaita is rebava zikeyena gu jonksevaf lingeks. Fe ke ceptapa koe rebava co zanudasa va rumkara va zikes tcalist tiyid. Abrotcaf plor kal brivakiraf kusk stayar. Briva conyon ice aluba ke abrotce is balema ke mante tigiyid. Gazafa bonta batakon lingeyena mal bat kusk zo kolaniyir, isen aluboya ara bonta pokeon tigiyid. Dere pokeon koe taltef pak ke berma, dopewa ke Sushi is lupaxek is yone emaxe don belcetaxo is bukelta ta olk isu punta isu vor tigiyid. [11][29]

Vaneksara va lava

Stogoyeks ke lavaf ugol

Koe Erebuni dum koe aryona widava ke Urartu gazaxo, bolk vaneksas va lava trumon envayan is grustas, male konaka klita tigisa arte 7 km- male wid koe Garnijskich meftaxo. [30] Lava mal levetawaf ugol ruldas vas raporaf anamkaf yaxay fartuyun kum kuritca dem divefa xakoba vas 40 cm- isu koefa vas 10 cm- artniyir. [11] Kotak ke ugol leve sid zo mastuyur enide todon gu deblamera tiyir nendayan. Turingas bolk koe wid dere tigiyir. Koe kuskap ke ralma is lupaxek, lird kayestas va muvalava dere tigiyid. Tanoy lavak espas va lava mal fuyuna klita koe widava zo kosmayar. [31]

Joxara

Muka ke Haxāmanišiya sare
AchaemenidGoblet02.jpg AchaemenidGoblet01.jpg

Skus martig ke bat dilgavaf rhyton trig trasiyin bak 1968 va kira ke savsafa ellasafa yamba isu mialukafa ronekafa isu urartufa nedir. Lan opik trakud da bata jwa tir wazdeks ke turestara va yamba ke Urartu va savsafa Persa. [32] Koe Tcilaxe ke Erebuni zo vided.

Taneafa rawopafa suxara bak XIX-eafa decemda tozuweyed azen bolkafa suxara bak 1952 gan opaf cultim ke sovietafe Armena Sokasane is Puckin yambafa sokafa tcila zo skuyur. Soli gan Konstantin Hovhannisyan xayastanik zo gadeyer isen opafa stujera gan Boris Pyotrovski rossiik. [33] Bal taneafa joxasa nesida ( 1950-1968 ), berma ke Argishti is gazafa bonta is konaka dopewa is loa decemoya bonta zo vayayad. Konaka sanoya muka ke Urartu sare azu Haxāmanišiyadum tawoldaxa is isolaxa is anambekwa is nubaskak is mardxa is ulisiki is atsa is tceka is dilgavaf talolk zo kosmayad. [34][35] Lip ke rebava atoes va zolonafa alkafa watsa zo trasiyid, i va tulon ezgalday dem lorik ik baerdaf sulem ok bliraal is dere nakila ke vieleafa blira nedisa va tcabanera is tawamidura is vartera. [36]

Belcetaxo va zaipa ik punta ik vor dere zo kosmayad. Kosuteks keve kolanis tuvel koe bat seg zo trasiyid, i kosuteks bazes va intafa vegedura is ota ke koeon aykayan mukeem. Tanbat kosuteks kalir :

Kan gijuca ke Haldi lorik, Sarduri nazbeikye ke Argishti va bata mona vegeduyur ise dere va olkxe exoneyer. Koe tanbane 12600 kapi muka tiyid isu 11500 koe are, trabe kotak vas 24100 kapi. Sarduri nazbeikye ke Argishti, gijarotif gazik ke Biainili, bowesik va Tushpa wid.

Trocadayafa sarmapa dem vor ik punta va tcala diskiyid. Ara trocadayafa sarmama bal joxara dere zo trasiyid isen trakut da ta bunera va olyubekot zo kofaveyed. Ar logijapaf anoz ta belcetara va tor ik vor zo faveyed. Ivamufa tcalama keve krileem tice batyona sarma va koroplekuyuna tokoda bazeyed. Bata logijafa olkotca gubeon mialon zo kosidayad nume va iewafa videra va cek noveyed.

Jontik simbakoraf kosuteks kum burgi koe kotak ke birtey zo katrasiyid. Lan koe tcilaxe zo wonad, solve ar keve rebava ke ralma zo divnedid. [37] Erebuni tcilaxe moe venta bak 1968 zo vegeduyur enide vas 250-eaf ilanuk ke Yerevan dotegalayar. Mali 2008 joxara gan armenaf is divef rawopik zo wanud. [38]

Rebavaf lingeks

Larde ralma ke Erebuni va sare ke Urartu ape meldiskon tiskiyir, pune cugexaf koef lingeks lokiewon nendoyeweyed. Gedrafa stabrega gan rawopik koe cug wid ke Urartu zo kosmayad. [11] Taneaf lingeks ke ralma bal joxara bak 1950 koe dopewa ke Haldi zo kosmayad. Banvielu aptacik vajules va Erebuni va kobaveranya ta nendoyera va rebava is girodaki is stogoyeks ke lingeks skuyud, rewason va lane videse ckane nendoyese va madjaf kseveem ke rebava. Xantaf stogoyeks ke lingeks koe tcila koe Armena tigid, i koe tulon Armenafa Izvafa Tcila. Konak ksudaks ke batyon lingeks koe tcilaxe ke Erebuni is koe rawaks ke ralma is aryona tcila zo divnedid. [39]

Rebavaf lingeks ke Erebuni
Urartian Fresco02.jpg Urartian Fresco03.jpg Erebuni museum 1283cropped.jpg

Stragela

  • (en) Barnett, R. D. (1982). «Urartu». Kan John Boardman. Cambridge University Press, ed. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 1. Cambridge. 
  • (en) Bournoutian, George A. (2006). A Concise History of the Armenian People. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers. ISBN 1-56859-141-1. 
  • (en) Chahin, Mack (2001). The Kingdom of Armenia. Richmond: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-7007-1452-9. 
  • (en) Hovhannisyan, Konstantin (1973). The Wall Paintings of Erebuni. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences. 
  • (hy) Hovhannisyan, Konstantin (1976). «Արին Բերդ». Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. Vol. II. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences. 
  • (hy) Hovhannisyan, Konstantin (1979). «էրեբունի». Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia] vol. iv. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences. pp. 90-91. 
  • (ru) Hovhannisyan, Konstantine; Piotrowski, BB. (1980). Крепость Эребуни (fortaleza de Erebuni (782 aC). Yerevan Hayastana. 
  • (hy) Israelyan, Margarit A (1971). Էրեբունի: Բերդ-Քաղաքի Պատմություն. Yerevan: Hayastan Publishing Press. 
  • (en) Van de Mieroop, Marc (2006). A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000-323 BC. Cornwall: Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-4911-6. 
  • (ru) Piotrowski, Boris; Orbeli l, Joseph (1959). Ванское царство (Урарту). Moskva: Издательство Восточной литературы. 

Vuestexa

  1. Ginosiapartels (ed.). Erebuni Fortress (kan  EN-). Tusavs- male xanto ba 24/09/2016. Ruyera ba 01/09/2016. 
  2. elevationmap.net (ed.). Erebuni Fortress Elevation and Position. Ruyera ba 01/09/2016. 
  3. Israelyan, 1971, pp. 8-15
  4. Сулеевва, Асель (17/09/2012). «9 самых древних крепостей мира». Forbes (kan  RU-). Ruyera ba 01/09/2016. 
  5. Arutjunjan (Harootunian), N.V. (1959). «Երևանի հիմնադրման ժամանակի հարցի շուրջը». Kan Academy of Sciences of Armenia, ed. Patma-Banasirakan Handes (Historical-Philological Journal) Vol.2-3: 78-96. Ruyera ba 01/09/2016. 
  6. Barnett, 1982, p. 345
  7. Barnett, 1982, p. 346
  8. Israelyan, 1971, pp. 139-140
  9. Israelyan, 1971, p.9
  10. Hovhannisyan, 1979, pp. 90-91
  11. 11,0 11,1 11,2 11,3 et 11,4 Hovhannisyan, KL (1961). Arquitectura Arin-Berd I, Erebuní basado en excavaciones 1950-1959. Yerevan: Publicación de RSS de Armenia 1961. 
  12. Piotrowski, 1959, pp. 22-23
  13. Hovhannisyan, 1979, pp. 90-91
  14. Chahin, 2001, p.79
  15. Chahin, 2001, pp. 158-160
  16. Hovhannisyan, 1973, p.57
  17. Israelyan, 1971, pp. 137-138
  18. Piotrowski, Orbeli1959, p.286
  19. Hovhannisyan, 1979, pp. 90-91
  20. Van de Mieroop, 2006, p.217
  21. Israelyan, 1971, pp. 137-138
  22. Bournoutian, 2006, p.12
  23. Hovhannisyan, 1979, pp. 90-91
  24. Hovhannisyan, Piotrowski, 1980, pp. 34-144
  25. Hovhannisyan, Piotrowski, 1980, pp. 63-64
  26. Hovhannisyan, Piotrowski, 1980, pp. 91-113
  27. Меликишвили, Георгий Александрович (1958). «К вопросу о хетто-цупаннийских переселенцах в Урарту». Вестник древней истории (kan  RU-) (Moskva) (2). 
  28. Hovhannisyan, Piotrowski, 1980, pp. 91-113
  29. Erubini. Historical and Archaelogical Museum-Reserve (ed.). Erebuni settlement (kan  EN-). Ruyera ba 01/09/2016. 
  30. Hovhannisyan, Piotrowski, 1980, p.125
  31. Hovhannisyan, Piotrowski, 1980, pp. 125-126
  32. Б. Н. Аракелян, Клад серебряных изделий из Эребуни, Советская археология, p. 1 (1971)
  33. Hovhannisyan, 1976, p=60
  34. Hovhannisyan, 1976, p=60
  35. Erebuni Historical and Archaeological Museum-Reserve (ed.). Bibliography of Erebuni (kan  EN- / HY-). Ruyera ba 02/09/2016. 
  36. Chahin, 2001, p.118
  37. Erebuni Historical and Archaeological Museum-Reserve (ed.). Excavations & valuable founds in Erebuni (kan  EN- /HY-). Ruyera ba 02/09/2016. 
  38. Erebuni Historical and Archaeological Museum-Reserve (ed.). The results of the 8-year excavations of the Armenian-French archaeological expedition were summarized at Erebuni (kan  EN- /HY-). Ruyera ba 02/12/2016. 
  39. Каталог археологических предметов музея «Эребуни». Ereván: издательство Управления по охране памятников истории и культуры Республики Армения. 2002. p. 80. ISBN 99930-2-535-6. 
Erebuni
Dimempayana rebava ke ralma radimi rawopafa joxara
DEBALA
Debala Yerevan
Armena   Flag of Armenia.svg
Maneka OOjs UI icon mapPin-progressive.svg 40° 08′ 26" L-, 44° 32′ 17" R-
KIRA
Ord Urartu ralma
Welma 0.08 km²
IZVA
Zabdura ≈ -782 AGJ
Jovlera ≈ -VI-eafa decemda
Ayafe sare Urartu, Azilugal
P Parthenon 2.svg  Tuveli icde Izvopa  P Parthenon 2.svg
Zovdom va Erebuni ralma
Urartu extension.svg Urartu Chariot D.jpg Urartu : savsugalafo gazaxo ke Pokefa Lenteka  Van Fortress From Northwest.JPG
Gazik

ArameLutipriSarduri IIshpuiniMenuaArgishti ISarduri IIRusa IArgishti IIRusa IISarduri IIISarduri IVErimenaRusa IIIRusa IV

Debak

AltıntepeArgishtikhiniliArzashkunAyanisBastamErebuniRusahiniliSardurihiniliTeishebaniTushpa

Lorik

ArubaniHaldiHubaShiviniTeishebaTushpuea

Araya

UrartuavaAlkaYamba