Paul Feyerabend

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Paul Feyerabend
1924-1994
Osteraf az amerikaf trakopik

Paul Karl Feyerabend tir trakopik va opeem, xantaf gu Ostera az tuvedeyotanon amerikaf, bliyis koe Engla az Tanarasokeem az Newzelanda az Italia az tere Swiza.

Intaf nelkaf kobaveks tid Kev nuvaAgainst Method, sanegayan bak 1975 ) is Opa dene nuyaf seltScience in a Free Society, 1978 ) az Divkiavara va ovaFarewell to Reason, telizak sanegayan bak 1987 ). Nope intafa arotievafa torigira va opa is dameura va kruldera ke tamefa nuvopafa lova tusposawer. Tir turestas motasik koe ind ke trakopa va opeem, tulon kan intafa opopafa rietova yoltayana gu « opopafa arotieva » kabdunediyina koe Kev nuva : Lordeks va arotievafa rietova va gruperaAgainst Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge, 1975 ). Cug inaf sanegaks tid xanton englavaf.

Blirizva[betara | va krent betá]

Paul Feyerabend bak 1924 koe Wien kobliyir lize kali toleodafa doca di vayayar. Banugale toz gibelipiyir ise va dulapera va wenya voneyer. Bak Toleafa Tamavageja gu germanafa ervolia zo komilkayar edje vanpiyir rikulik. Keve lentronef redjel bak 1944 gu baroy vilt ko ge zo bakayar. Nume remi arak ke blirugal va runza ta lanira di gofaveyer ise jontikviele di kranavepeyer.

Radimi geja, Feyerabend suteson va wenyaxa koe Apolda toz kobayar. Azon ko Wien dimon tigiyir lize va izvopa is seltopa vayayar. Soe zo awuzayar aze va altelopa kalion dulapeyer nume va kakevera va Felix Ehrenhaft katectayar, i va altelopik turestayas nope dilintyona bagalara va dalintafa torigira va opa. Azon va vayana trakopafa watsa ware betayar aze va dizves blayak tcilkayar. Koe mivblirizva, va intyon trakuropaf vil ke bane sare dum « ronkafa bagalevaca » pimtar. Bak 1948 va Karl Popper bal abama koe Alpbach taneatomon kakeveyer. Karl Popper va direfa kobavera ke Feyerabend turestapayar, i va kobavera taneon dakisa va trak ke Popper az tsunesa. Feyerabend dirganon gan Popper dene London School of Economics kizey bak 1952 kobayar. Koe mivblirizva dizver da banugale gan Popper zo turestapayar : « Leve mempera ke inaf rieteem tigiyí ». Azon ko Wien ware dimpiyir.

Bak 1955 Feyerabend va kotla ke Bristol koe Britana zo koflir lize va trakopa va opeem taveyer. Azon koe Berkeley ( Tanarasokeem ) az Auckland ( Newzelanda ) az Sussex ( Engla ) az Yale ( Tanarasokeem ) az London az Berlin ( Germana ) dere taveyer. Remi bana rekola va malyopasa torigira va opa voneyer, i va torigira tentuna dum « arotievaca » yunketeson va kerektara va kota nuvopafa pukuca. Bata tirka tiyir jontikeke volgucesa va rieteem abduplekun gan ovopaf bagalevikeem turestapayas remi XX-eafa decemda va opopikeem, voxis rieteem ke Popper tcilkas va rotavereva is opa tanon maltrakusa. Feyerabend va Imre Lakatos radimion kakeveyer. Sin va sutera va wakara gorayad lize Lakatos va ovevafa torigira va opeem co rojuyur solve co dilfur luxeon Feyerabend. Levgafa awalkera ke Lakatos bak 1974 va doskura va bat dof suteks me noveyer, wori Feyerabend va sanegara va intaf pak ke waka gorayar kore karakeyer da gracafa dulzera ke Lakatos va tcilk di tuenjapayar. Suteks vergumveltkiraf gu Kev nuva nope intafa garfelafa malyopara va torigira va trakopa va opeem, va jontika kategira soe nekiyir.

Bak 1958 Feyerabend ko Berkeley taveteson mallapiyir numaze amerikaf wideyik vanpiyir. Kali 1991 taveyer aze va teliz wan sanegayar ise va mivblirizva kobaveyer. Koe Swiza bak 1994 keravawolgeson mulufteyer.

Feyerabend is nuva dene opa[betara | va krent betá]

Koe Against Method ( Kev nuva ) neva isu Science in a Free Society ( Opa dene nuyaf selt ), Feyerabend rietarojur da volbetukesa nuvopafa lova gofavena gan opik me krulded, i va lova merotaklenon co ozesa va enuca ke sinyona aneyara. Culimeyer da mana savsutesa nuvopa va tegisa rapta ke opikeem co kimar nume va opafa abduxoa co irutar. Sedme in, lana « urepta » ke nuvopafa arotieva tire co tir zeitafa gu opa.

Koe Kev nuva, Feyerabend dakteyer da trakopa ke aneyaraf talpey ke Imre Lakatos vas « efuna arotieva » tire niteyed kiren in va mezilira va nia pu opik espur. Ostik Feyerabend va suteks pu Lakatos tarizayar, i pu « nik is berik dene arotieva ».

Rovadjesuca varze savsafa darefa rietova[betara | va krent betá]

Feyerabend va tana prostewafa luda ke gunestera va opafa rietova dere dilfur, i va luda icde rovadjesuca. Lasudanedir da bata dirgulaca ke rovadjesuca ke kota warzafa rietova varze telyona savsafa, va rietova ixam kizeyena guntarsar. Sedme in, dacoba kona warzafa rietova vas konara besasa va mila aneyarafa rapta govadjer, pune batcoba va inafa enuca metode laumasir. In batkane sugdalar da kiblara va manbata ok manbana rietova tisa ke mil ind pebutuson va bifeem, narason va tela lovadjesa vas savsafa nek soptena rietova, en tir nope listopafa lodam ovopafa gorara. Ison yastuca ke mana rietova va tugijara va intafa nutisa jekura va opik di jupar, i va opik battode megovolneyas va dilintaf abdimalyekseem. Batdume bana rietova va mebecaf is memalyaf gunt dagir.

Rotavereva[betara | va krent betá]

Feyerabend va malyopara va rotavereva ke Popper dere askiyir. Mbi kevbenuyur da kona dulapafa rietova va koti tegi co meviele dotrakur. Batcoba va lana opelkafa kotavereva kevkalir, i kotavereva ruyesa da kota opafa rietova co zo gonilikatcur ede co tir medojeniasa vas grupen bifeem. Feyerabend va tula ke dimtupreksara dene quanta poopa narar : « Bata diotexa vas tridera va lanote patavaks num ikaplekura gu pimtara va dizvena bagalevaca niter. Batkane koedjon dostet da rietova tir xelkana, tazukoyeson inde lan warzaf nelkot zo kosmayar » ( Kev nuva ). Feyerabend va askirinda ke opikeem me nuler ; kalir da opik va dimtupreksara ik konafa aptolafa sazdara me gozanier. In volson ruyer da mana nuva konakdume tid adrafa gu abduxoa ke opa. Tana lazava tir da abduxoa ke opa tir memiltafa. Feyerabend tulon pebur da sareon gu Galilei wiropa va bifa soe dizvena kan sumeweza me tuenayar. Kocopik zanies va dizveks ke sumeweza va aptolafa sazdara kucilayad vieli va seriuks tuke wiropafa rietova di rotumalyayad.

Vadjera vas exoneckeni tegi[betara | va krent betá]

Feyerabend va kota tila anton malyedasa va opafa rietova doluneson gu exoneckeni tegi, dere malyopayar. Trakuyur da direfa rietova va remgrupera va dizvena bifa roturestayad. Opik va tuwavafa remtrakura zanied, trabe va rieta « vwepon tikisa va dizvera maneke kojiligatason, va aptafa sugara gonaskit », kotviele va opafa rietova gu dizveni tegi doluned. Mana remgrupera zo gobetad ede warzafa rietova zo kabdunedir ise gu dizvera tudojeniasar. Feyerabend icde manyona tuwavafa rietova va bifa, va tulacka ke rasek narayar.

Tula ke rasek va dalafa kevbenura gu rietova lasudanedisa va anamenira ke tawava tire tadleyer. Aristoleles sernik trakuyud da koni raporki ke rasek ticunisi biwe kabdutit mil rasek soluber numen bati tegi wazder da tawava sotir yalestafa. Trakuyud da tode tawava bak lubera ke raporki co anamenir, pune bati kadimtit rasek co di mosidawer. Sedme sin, ede tawava co anamenir, pune xa mexuon vols dadon co luber. Larde mancoba koe altafa tamava somesokir, pune Aristoteles sernik maltrakuyud da tawava sotir yalestafa. Rietova ke Copernicus gan sotisa enxufa lubera mo sid en zo nusopter. Acum bata dizvera amidon zo goremgrupeyer enide gu rietova ke Copernicus tudojeniasar. Galilei lajumaeyer, zanieson va aptolafa sazdara is volgolason dioteson. Batdume Feyerabend va sazdara gu lovaca torigir : sazdara va ugalorafa tudojeniasara va rietova gu tegi, keson da tcilkana rietova gan aryona rietova di zo zober.

Kotbat katcalaks va denfira va rietova taneon torigina gu medojeniara va exoneckeni tegi lajutuageltad. Ison, va nuvopafa kontuca tuadrad, i va kontuca koaykasa va dolunera va rietoveem ta tukiewara va dil intafa solara. Batkane opafa kontuca va malyopasi roti ke opa co tuwarzar. Batdume Feyerabend drager da opa maltrakuson vols kre volmaltrakuson me di dioter.

Kotcoba kiewafa[betara | va krent betá]

Sedme Feyerabend, warzafa rietova meviele zo naler kire va opafa godela al malaskir, volson kiren sinaf zobesik va kota rotisa djasta al zanied, i va djasta ton ovevafa dusiva ok danedisa tca ik galbeduracka abduplekuson va neya. Mantode, antafa vanfira medasasa va abduxoa tir « kotcoba kiewafa » ( anything goes ). « Bancoba me tir jinaf nelkot co djurenzan, ~ Feyerabend bak 1975 kalir, ~ voxe mayes diviegaks ke lan ovevik loeke dulapeyes va izva ».

Merosabenuca[betara | va krent betá]

Feyerabend dere trakuyur da merosabenuca ke rietova, trabe coba askisa da va toloya rietova rontion me rodolunet kiren sinafa omava tir male merodojenias levaykaks, va favera va jadifa luda ta tentura va duga ke opafa rietova dere co rotatcer. Konbata rietova vamoe arbana sometigir larde sedme in, kona opafa rietova va geltre mal milyona lya metode dapnarir.

Yorda ke opa dene selt[betara | va krent betá]

Sedme Feyerabend, opa zo rotorigir da tisilon tir arotievafa, trumasa va intaf vund nek espusa va ageltuca kaik intafa kramafa rotisuca. Da Aristoteles kev Galilei zo rojuyur oken Pouchet kev Pasteur, pune mancoba tir ke nivafa opafa kevudara, voxen ede rabateks ke Darwin icde fira ke tuwava ton savsutera mu seltafa vura zo remgruped, pune bancoba va miv opa mea tikir ( tulon atayera va totadoleka ).

Kev opeva[betara | va krent betá]

Feyerabend malyedar da tila ke jontik opik tove aryona trakurinda isu gruperinda tir zbolesafa. In tulon kimbar da fimaf vil icde kocadiepileropa ok keskuca ke muvastutera opon me zo sopted, isen malvewara va banyona bifa kle mea tir ke ovevaf ind. Sedme in, opa vanpir rujasa rietova neke taneon tiyir tunuyas lizor. Feyerabend trakur da witaf selt gu envara tanon nekifa va tamava va int gotunuyar milinde icde enidevaf rietoveem askiyir.

Akleson va rieta ke tamefa opafa nuva, Feyerabend ruyer da tirka vanzilina gu opeem dene taltekaf selt tir menivafa, num opeva. Larde opik va tamefa trakula ozesa va duga ke intaf dizvereem me lajuvanikatcud, pune me gogwet da anja ke opa gu ara rietova dum alka volfiste zo gogolad. Acum ara rietova male torigira ke milsarefa opa me co zo romalyedar. Ison opafa kiewatcapa vas yona meopafa kira izvon ruldayad. Malgrupera ke opik tire jontikote tir male vunde ik alke.

Solparsara va opa gu soka[betara | va krent betá]

Omavason gu bata dusivara, Feyerabend va solparsara va opa gu soka battode waster milinde alka is selt dene witaf mealkaf selt zo solparsad. Va « nuyaf selt » guzekar lize « kota prostewa va mil rokeem is mila vansara va roti sinton co dadir ». Tulon, gadikeem va gotura va rietodafa orka ke gaara va nazbeikeem co gorokar solve va abic jonukey kiman gan opa anton dadir.

Feyerabend dace tiaver da opa gu sanerotifa stujera zo golevplekur : osk abduaneyas ind gan sanefa kolibura co zo gogotud voxosk levaykaks is zolteks ke opa gan sanefa neda co zo gomostujed. Trakuyur da wideyik va intyon nelkot gozanied kotviele icde man uum gogorad ; sedme in rieta ke gorara gotisa ovopafa en tir ontinukevafa kiren batcoba levaykar da trakopik ik opik va ludeem stas va ayafa gorara grugotud. Neke dere rovorokled kire va abdimalyeks medikis va opa sodid ( watsa ke Divkiavara va ova undeks ~ Farewell to Reason ).

Sanegaks[betara | va krent betá]

Stragela[betara | va krent betá]

Englavaf sanegaks :

  • Agassi, J., 1976 : Review of Against Method, Philosophia, 6.
  • Alford, C.F., 1985 : Yates on Feyerabend’s Democratic Relativism, Inquiry, 28.
  • Andersson, G., 1994 : Criticism and the History of Science: Kuhn’s, Lakatos’s and Feyerabend’s Criticisms of Critical Rationalism. (Leiden: Brill).
  • Bearn, G.C.F., 1986 : Nietzsche, Feyerabend, and the Voices of Relativism, Metaphilosophy, 17.
  • Bhaskar, R., 1975 : Feyerabend and Bachelard: Two Philosophies of Science, New Left Review, 94.
  • Broad, W.J., 1979 : Paul Feyerabend: Science and the Anarchist, Science, 206.
  • Brown, H.I., 1984 : Review of P.K.Feyerabend’s Philosophical Papers, International Studies in Philosophy, 16.
  • Burian, R.M.: Scientific Realism and Incommensurability: Some Criticisms of Kuhn and Feyerabend, in Methodology, Metaphysics and the History of Science, eds. R.S.Cohen and M.W.Wartofsky (Dordrecht: D.Reidel, 1984).
  • Butts, R.E., 1966 : Feyerabend and the Pragmatic Theory of Observation, Philosophy of Science, 33.
  • Chalmers, A., 1986 : The Galileo that Feyerabend Missed: An Improved Case Against Method, in J.A.Schuster & R.R.Yeo (eds.), The Politics and Rhetoric of Scientific Method. (Dordrecht: D.Reidel).
  • Coffa, J.A., 1967 : Feyerabend on Explanation and Reduction, Journal of Philosophy, 64.
  • Couvalis, S.G., 1987 : Feyerabend’s Epistemology and Brecht’s Theory of the Drama, Philosophy and Literature, 11.
  • Couvalis, S.G., 1988a : Feyerabend, Ionesco, and the Philosophy of the Drama, Critical Philosophy, 4.
  • Couvalis, S.G., 1988b : Feyerabend and Laymon on Brownian Motion, Philosophy of Science, 55.
  • Couvalis, S.G.: Feyerabend’s Critique of Foundationalism (Aldershot: Avebury Press, 1989).
  • Drayton, J., 1987 : Feyerabend, Paul K(arl), in R.Turner (ed.), Thinkers of the Twentieth Century. (Chicago and London: St.James Press).
  • Edgley, R., 1994 : Paul Feyerabend, 1924-1994: A Personal Memoir, Radical Philosophy, 67.
  • Edgley, R., 1996 : Anarchy in Academia, New Left Review, 217, May/June.
  • Gardner, M., 1982 : Anti-Science: The Strange Case of Paul Feyerabend, Free Inquiry, 3.
  • Goodman, N., 1984 : Relativism Awry: Response to Feyerabend, New Ideas in Psychology, 2.
  • Hacking, I., 1991 : Review of P.K.Feyerabend, Against Method, and Farewell to Reason, Journal of Philosophy, 88.
  • , [Ian Hacking]]., 1994 : Paul Feyerabend, Humanist, Common Knowledge, 3.
  • Hannay, A., 1989 : Politics and Feyerabend’s Anarchist, in *
  • Harré, R., 1959 : Notes on P.K.Feyerabend’s Criticism of Positivism, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 10.
  • Harré, R., 1977 : Review of P.K.Feyerabend’s Against Method. Mind, 86.
  • Harré, R., 1984 : For Method: A Response to Feyerabend, New Ideas in Psychology, 2.
  • Hellman, G., 1979 : Against Bad Method’ (Review of Against Method), Metaphilosophy, 10.
  • Horgan, J., 1993 : Profile: Paul Karl Feyerabend: The Worst Enemy of Science, Scientific American, May 1993.
  • Hoyningen-Huene, P., 1994 : Obituary of Paul K.Feyerabend (1924-1994), Erkenntnis, 40.
  • Hull, R.T., 1972 : Feyerabend’s Attack on Observation Sentences, Synthese, 23.
  • Joravsky, D., 1979 : Scientists as Servants (Reviews of, inter alia, Against Method and Science in a Free Society), The New York Review of Books, 26, no.11, June 28.
  • Kadvany, J., 1996 : Reason in History: Paul Feyerabend’s Autobiography, Inquiry, 39.
  • Kleiner, S.A., 1979 : Feyerabend, Galileo and Darwin: How to Make the Best out of what you have - or think you can get, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 10.
  • Koertge, N., 1972 : For and Against Method (Review of Radner & Winokur), British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 23.
  • Koertge, N., 1980 : Review of P.K.Feyerabend’s Science in a Free Society, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 31.
  • Kresge, S., 1996 : Feyerabend Unbound, (Review of Killing Time), Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 26.
  • Lamb, D, Munévar, G. & Preston, J.M. (eds.), The Worst Enemy of Science ?: Essays on the Philosophy of Paul Feyerabend. (Forthcoming during 1998).
  • Laudan, L., 1989 : For Method: or, Against Feyerabend, in J.R.Brown & J.Mittelstrass (eds.), An Intimate Relation. (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1989).
  • Laymon, R., 1977 : Feyerabend, Brownian Motion, and the Hiddenness of Refuting Facts, Philosophy of Science, 44.
  • Machamer, P.K., 1973 : Feyerabend and Galileo: the Interaction of Theories, and the Reinterpretation of Experience, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 4.
  • Maia Neto, J.R., 1991 : Feyerabend’s Scepticism, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 22.
  • Margolis, J., 1970a : Notes on Feyerabend and Hanson, in M.Radner & S.Winokur (eds.), Analyses of Theories and Methods in Physics and Psychology, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Volume 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • McEvoy, J.G., 1975 : A ‘Revolutionary’ Philosophy of Science: Feyerabend and the Degeneration of Critical Rationalism into Sceptical Fallibilism, Philosophy of Science, 42.
  • Munévar, G., ed.: Beyond Reason: Essays on the Philosophy of Paul Feyerabend (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1991).
  • Musgrave, A., 1976 : Method or Madness? Can the Methodology of Research Programmes be Rescued from Epistemological Anarchism?, in R.S.Cohen, P.K.Feyerabend & M.Wartofsky (eds.), Essays in Memory of Imre Lakatos. Dordrecht: Reidel.
  • Nordmann, A., 1990 : Goodbye and Farewell: Siegel vs. Feyerabend, Inquiry, 33.
  • Pace, M., 1995 : Review of the third edition of Against Method, Philosophy Now, 14, Winter 1995/6.
  • Preston, J.M., 1995a : Frictionless Philosophy: Paul Feyerabend and Relativism, History of European Ideas, 20.
  • Preston, J.M., 1995b : The Missing Piece (Review of P.K.Feyerabend, Killing Time), The Times Literary Supplement, 4812.
  • Preston, J.M., 1996 : Review of P.Horwich (ed.), World Changes: Thomas Kuhn and the Nature of Science, and G.Munévar (ed.), Beyond Reason: Essays on the Philosophy of Paul Feyerabend, International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 9.
  • Preston, J.M.,, 1997a : Feyerabend: Philosophy, Science and Society (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1997).
  • Preston, J.M.,, 1997b : Feyerabend’s Polanyian Turns, Appraisal, 1 Supplementary Issue.
  • Preston, J.M.,, 1997c : Feyerabend’s Retreat from Realism, Philosophy of Science, 64.
  • Preston, J.M.,, 1998 : Feyerabend’s Final Relativism The European Legacy, 2.
  • Preston, J.M.,, forthcoming : Feyerabend in the 90s: ‘Post-Modern’ Themes in his Later Philosophy of Science’, recently submitted to Studies in History and Philosophy of Science.
  • Pyle, A., 1994 : Obituary: Paul Feyerabend, Cogito, Summer 1994.
  • Roberts, J., 1994 : A Relatively Positive Anarchist (Obituary), The Guardian, 25th Feb, 1994.
  • Saxon, W., 1994 : Paul K.Feyerabend, 70, Anti-Science Philosopher (Obituary), New York Times, March, 8, 1994.
  • Schlagel, R.H., 1981 : Review of Science in a Free Society, Review of Metaphysics, 35.
  • Siegel, H., 1989 : Farewell to Feyerabend, Inquiry, 32.
  • Smith, P., 1983 : Review of P.K.Feyerabend’s Philosophical Papers, Volumes I and II, Philosophical Investigations, 6.
  • Tibbetts, P., 1976 : Feyerabend on Ideology, Human Happiness, and the Good Life, Man and World, 9.
  • Townsend, B., 1971 : Feyerabend’s Pragmatic Theory of Observation and the Comparability of Alternative Theories, in R.C.Buck & R.S.Cohen (eds.), PSA 1970, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 8. Dordrecht: D.Reidel.
  • Watkins, J.W.N., 1994 : Professor Paul Feyerabend (Obituary), The Independent, March,4, 1994.
  • Weber, M., 1993 : The ‘Anything Goes’ Philosopher, The Times Higher Education Supplement, December, 10, 1993.
  • Weimer, W.B., 1980 : For and Against Method: Reflections on Feyerabend and the Foibles of Philosophy, Pre/Text, 1-2.
  • Worrall, J., 1978a : Against Too Much Method, Erkenntnis, 13.
  • Worrall, J., 1978b : Is the Empirical Content of a Theory Dependent On Its Rivals ? in I.Niiniluoto and R.Tuomela (eds.), The Logic and Epistemology of Scientific Change, Acta Philosophica Fennica, 30.
  • Worrall, J., 1991 : Feyerabend and the Facts, in Munévar (ed.), 1991.
  • Yates, S., 1984 : Feyerabend’s Democratic Relativism, Inquiry, 27.
  • Yates, S., 1985 : More on Democratic Relativism: A Response to Alford, Inquiry, 28.
  • Zahar, E., 1982 : Feyerabend on Observation and Empirical Content, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 33.

Vuestexa[betara | va krent betá]

Paul Feyerabend

Paul Feyerabend

 Koblira  13/01/1924,
 Wien, Ostera
 Awalkera  11/02/1994,
 Genolier, Swiza
 Vedeyot  Ostera  Flag of Austria.svg
 Eba  Trakopik
 Serna  Luzdasa trakopa
 Opopafa arotieva, izvopa va opeem, ayikopa, gaderopafa trakopa
 Turestara   Protagoras, Mill, Kierkegaard, Duhem, Wittgenstein, Hayek, Popper, Dada, Lakatos, Lévi-Strauss, Kuhn
  Grabom   
  • Against method, outline of an anarchist theory of knowledge
  • Science in a Free Society
  • Farewell to Reason
  • Philosophical Papers
Bookshelf icon (red and blue).svg  Tuveli icde Suteroteem  Bookshelf icon (red and blue).svg
Rb-star.svg  Tuveli icde Arotieva  Rb-star.svg