Stakera ke Adana

Teliz mal Wikipedia.
Aller à la navigation Aller à la recherche

Ugalay ke Armenafa saneaytara

Stakera ke Adanaarmenavon Ադանայի կոտորած ; turkavon Adana İğtişaşı ) koe Adana winka ( Osmanlı gindaxo ) bak balemeaksat ke 1909 dilizeyed, i koe winka vadjeckesa vas Kilikia izvafa gola. Lana stakera raplekuyuna gan turkik kev armenafa sanelia ke Adana widava nope Osmanlı kevartowara ke 1909 ton tizafa kevarmenafa teyera koe varafa winka tittir.[1] Munesteks udined da bat pogrom stakera va 20000 ik 30000 armenaf kosik [2][3] isu 1300 assuraf kotote nekiyid.

Bak 1908 bal Jön Türk artowara, yon Osmanlı artowasa lospa ta basflira va Abdülhamit II gindik is toleafa pendera va tadlemwa ke 1876 dokobad. Kategison, ervokirafa kevartowara ba 13/04/1909 va Jön Türk lizor vajiker ise va Konstantinopolis vangir. Bata exura remi sanka oxam slar voxe va stakera va armenafa sanelia ke Adana winka remi loon tanoy aksat nekir.

Xanta ke batyona stakera tir vey gaderopafa is skapafa is alkafa amidaca.[4] Armenik ke Adana zo pimtayad da co tiyid « tel lokulaf is lotrigaf ».[5]

Armenaf lek va kevsokara va Abdülhamit II volunt al zobeyer. Ticfira ke turkafa coseva is sanefa folira da armenik tiyid teca divgisa alubeafa sipuxa levstujena gan Europa, pune va zuguca ke lonjera webeyed.[5]

Orka[betara | va krent betá]

Adana vanpir armenafa bak 1132, levrotiyina gan evolia ke sersaxo ke Pinafa Armena, aze kali 1360 zavzar.[6] Armenik darpe yona decemda adre koirubad nume va trigafa is redusafa sanelia tere tazukad.

Bak 1908 nope artowara Jön Türk bowere va int korotir. Remi abic aksat armenafa sanelia ke Osmanlı gindaxo va tena ke gazara ke Abdülhamit II impavantar ise gaderopon zobeteson va warzafe bowere va int grustar, i va bowere abdiplekuse va tumiltara gu islamevaf milpatectik [7] is dimnepalera ke alkeem is mikreem ke gindaxo.

Armenafa wida elakeyena az vilayana bal stakera ke Adana

Armenik gu dhimmi ravalduga banvieli zo levplekuyud. Ison mali 1876 Abdülhamit II gindik gan walislameveva tisa teca islamevafa coseva zo blizesir nume va tawuk stakes va armenik bak 1896 fosar, i va tawuk yoltayan gu Hamid stakera jupayas va loon 20000 xonukik.[8] Bata stakera va Europa pad neken ina me di walpir. Batdume armenaf lik ke Kilikia vox dere arak ke armenikeem is divlamanikeem va korotira ke Jön Türk gu wotraf yal torigid. Batkane kristevik va int ronovervoad ise va satcafa gaderopafa lospa rovotazukad. Voxen ronkik ke grindik torigid da divadomtara va kristevik tir vetuigara va sinaf gunteem.

Osmanlı kevartowara ke 1909 va roti bas meem ke Jön Türk lizor dimnarir ise nover da Abdülhamit II va torkafi roti klioton di dimbilder. Va tela lokategirevafa is loviderevafa gila ke islamevafa sanelia altogir, tixason va saneevafa dewitca is pulvisa va dimpendera va islamevafa mwa. Bata rotiopinda jupar da va sanefa zobera enseotar, vodjuson kev Jön Türk lizor.[9]

Lazava[betara | va krent betá]

Armenikya ke Adana nakeyena is wedanon buxayana

Sedme tanoy kocenkasik, viele warzot icde tarlera koe Konstantinopolis va Adana artfiyir, pune motrakura dene islamevafa sanelia icde fuza ke armenafa madakevera priduyud. Ba 14 ke balemeaksat, armenafa revava gan islamevafi tari zo dilfuyur numen konak decitoy armenik remi yona direfa safta di zo aytayad.[10]

Alto ke armenik aytayan koe Adana bal tana likera

Ar munesteks drigdad da « lan deliv wal armenik is turkik ba 13 ke balemeaksat runmuskayar nume va elakera va doltaxe is dilfura va armenafa revava nekiyir ». Arti tolka nope bat deliv loon 2000 armenik al zo aytayad.[11]

Koe munesteks bak anyusteaksat ke 1909, Charles Doughty-Wylie ruyer da « rietova icde ervokirafa artowara ke armenikeem gan cug gruik re vol zo rostar ». Pebur da me rokalit kase lana kevmadara dilizer viele meka avplekura va po zo askir meie kona sugara malsavesa va rodadina rojuxa zo rabater isen kottode armenikafa ota va fird mu vexafa Osmanlı ervolia co tufakar ». « Armenik va nazbeikeem is berikeem tcastaf koe winka is mekonariyis va ervo is me djupokotces me co iskeyed ».[12]

Remi titaytcura ke Osmanlı gindaxo, armenikeem nope intafa brutafa kuluca is giltaf walzvak icde gindafa koayka gu jala dere zo torigiyir.[13]

Lan munesteks ke Charles Doughty-Wylie britanaf ikapermik koe Adana va « lazava ke stakera » rinder. Vahakn Dadrian va krent ke bat valdig malsaver :

« Turkikeem kalfelis mali konaka decemda, va miltuca tove kristevikeem dun apter... Vidjera ke yon lozugaf rojusik va islameva dun laumar. Kas kevusik va Lorik gotid miltik gu islameva ? Kota kota zazda zolkevik va lana alkiskafa is ilkadena betara abduaskiyid... » [14]

Sedme Doughty-Wylie, Abdülhamit koe bata orka zo siskavayar kire « va stakesa cava al bokayar ». Male mil valdig, Kamuran Gurun turkaf gaderopopik drigdar da roka ke ervodiskira va sanefa cava ke ervodiskira al nekiyir. Voxen « ware loroton », sedme ewa ke Doughty-Wylie :

« Fuglara ke ervotiskis is mopulvis armenik va turkaf megrupesaf islamevik zuneyer. Dratcera is pobaxara gan kottol zo askiyid. Lan armenaf gadesik is dastrubenik ke Konstantinopolis is gertik ( armenaf gertik laninde tir kotrotiik ) va regikeem gu lustera va ervo koldayad. Batcoba volaun dilizeyer, voltixolon is dace laninde trukon. Va tokcoba tove lan rossiaf armenaf tujdesik gotrakut, i tove tujdesik wasteyes va jaxadara va awalkexikeem ke 1895, koe uja ke bata widava lize meka stakera al dilizeyer ? Icde tadlemwa ok me, to batcoba tiyir oltavaca sedme in. Va jaxadara, ~ in kaliyir, ~ kota pisonara nope kota. Va lustera va ervo. Va tanoy turkaf islamevik nope kot armenik ke 1895. » [15]

Stephan Astourian va aryona lazava miledje al afiar, i va tulon ticfisa vidjera ke islamevik va vanlaumara ke armenafa kristevafa lamara ko Adana, is va koplekura gan armenaf pilkotik va warzaf foalk ikapitis va jontik turkaf yambudik, is va sanefu nisu ruyesu va furefa sonara va lan grupepen armenaf pilkotik wetce okilik ke armenafo gazaxo ke Kilikia.[16]

Forteyasira[betara | va krent betá]

Liwot va Adana is armenafa revava firdeyena bak stakera

Mon 4437 armenafa vreda zo firdeyed, trabe vilara va riwe lik ke widava, batdume bata bifa gu « saneaytara » re zo duvud.[17] Spua ton muska ba 01/04/1909 tittiyir aze kadayar tizura kev armenafa sanelia ke Adana is konaka pokefa widava. Ba 18 ke balemeaksat, loon 1000 korik koe antafa Adana zo aytayad isen jontik meuldineyen loplekuik koe Tarsus is Iskenderun.[18] Konak decitoy gelbesik va amerikafo permaxo ke Iskenderun kopleyed isen tanoya britanafa gejatota ken krimta zo stakseyer ; baroya francafa gejatota kev Mersin zo stakseyed lize debala « pikseyer » isen jontiko taltekafo ikapermaxo gan armenaf gelbesik zo deblameyed.[18] Turkafa ervolia va tizuca lasufelileyer.

Oltavafa tizaca va Maraş is Hadjin ( Saimbeyli ) trokeyed isen uldinera va xonukikafa ota va 8000 kalion kaikfiyir.[19] Koe neva Rose Lambert alkavuidanik koe Hadjin suteyer da korik ko tcema lagelbeyed.[20] Tizurapa koe Iskenderun moltafa widava dere dilzeyer. Yon munesteks va brunuca ke gindafa rictaga ik daliura icde stakera exoned.[19]

Batu bu ke sanegaks ke 1911 va vilaxo ke armenafa revava ke Adana gu umbeyena pokefa turkafa revava kevaxar. [21]

Ba 20/04/1909 lana vura tere zo dimplekuyur isen muska koe Mersin tuvumeltaweyed nume britanafa gejetota va eksa is selaxa mu Adana robildeyer.[22] « Dratces » munesteks ke Hadjin bazeyer da ervokirapaf armenik koe widava zo elekayad ise « gan bewik ke islamevaf grelt zo deblameyed, i gan greltik oxam kes va umo otapo ipeteson va luwina rojuxa madayana gan armenik ».[22] 8000 gelbesik va alkafa tcema ke Tarsus kereleyed lize vura kan gejamwa sure zo dimexoneyer ; xonukikafa ota tiyir vas mon 50.[22]

Lana staksa ke amerikaf alkavuidanik koe Hadjin ba 22/04/1909 bazeyer da widava dile zo koteyayar isen armenaf pilkot al zo anteyayad numen deblamera tiyir merotarutena. Kotak ke armenafa sanelia ke Kırıkhan co zo stakeyer ; Dörtyol armenafa wida teyeyer ise zo ivamudayar ; ara forteyasira koe Tarsus dilizeyed ; stakera koe Antakya is muska koe Birejik zo murobayad.[23]

Herbert Adams Gibbons amerikaf alkavuidanik banedje woras va Adana, va nakila bak yon viel abdi 27 ke balemeaksat : [24]

Adana tir ton saus sok. Widava zo elakeyer ise zo vilayar... Va xonukikafa ota me rotuldinet. Awalkoda koe nudeem tid tcastanafa. Ba teveaviel viele divlaniyí, va kelda wal awalkikeem gonarayá enide mooon me avlayá. Ba riel ke pereaviel, va san-tan-toloya edava dem armenafa awalkoda remburena kal kuksa az mimana ko lava bad bartivacku otayá. Koe turkafo awalkikxo jontika naboxa zo suxayad. [...] Ba kiel ke teveaviel, 250 turkaf drowigaf ervolitik a fayik va lan impadimak koe Adana vangiyid aze vebayad da ko Tarsus di zo rembureyed lize va kalvilara va armenafa revava ke bana widava pakeyed, i va revava tisa tel lokiewafa pakava ke widava. Sinafa elakesa kobavera tiyir pintotafa is kaliafa.
Nuda koe kristevafa revava ke Adana, afigasuteyena bak teveaksat ke 1909

Osmanlı bowere va ervolia dilisutuson stakseyer voxe zo buntuyur da va tizaca co gindeyer oke co pakeyer. Lan teliz koe fela a sugdaks ke 00/05/1909 bazeyer da turkaf sayakik al artlapiyid voxe nuve me djukodiliyid :

Adana gan 4000 elakes is viltas is anteyas sayakik zo tueaftar. Meka tarkara pu diveik zo vanzilir. Toloya francafa bema zo vilayad isen kivat da bemafa is kazafa is alkavuidarafa amerikafa arienta koe Adana di zo rawad. Warzaf bowesik men zo dirnur. Rofolickit da rictaga va novera va awalkopera va kristevikeem wan xialar. [25]

Danexa[betara | va krent betá]

Winugafa Osmanlı vexala
dem kosikeem sotre widava
[26]
  Widava     Kristevik     Islamevik     Kotak  
  Adana 2739 782 3521
  Bahçe 752 9 761
  Ceyhan 378 175 553
  Tarsus 463 45 508
  Osmaniye   372 66 438
  Erzin 208 12 220
  Kozan 114 1 115
  Saimbeyli 15 78 93
  Kadirli 60 17 77
  Islahiye 50 50
  Karaisalı 44 44
  Hassa 33 33
  Elvanlı 13 1 14
  Feke 2 2
  Kotak 5243 1186 6429

Sedme winugaf Osmanlı orig, kosikaf kotak koe Adana widava tiyir vas 3521. Ke bat, 2093 armenik is 782 islamevik is 613 assurik is 35 ellasik tiyid.[26] Woda ke bowere tid male vertok ke saneliafa zanela is yona vexala siurgayana gan mukhtar winugik is gertik koe yono monaxo.

Hüseyin Hilmi Paşa eldapik bazeyer da stakera tiyir « gaderopaf vols alkaf uum [...] Abdida armenafa gaderopafa neda koe Anatola va int toz grustad, pune dili tiyir. Iské da va lazava ke forteyasira malyedac. » [27] Neke kaxaason da Abdülhamit II dareik « va awalkopera va armenikeem » al benplekuyur, pune ina odiakon al kalir da « meka stakera mea dilizeter. » [27]

Bak pereaksat ke 1909, Jön Türk bowere va jizara va lanyon boweref blodik isu sayakaf dakteyer, nope « sinafa zegara va stakera va armenik ».[28][29] Bal daneyes sayakaf tregul, 124 islamevik is 7 armenik nope pakera va tizaca zo klibuyud.[30]

Dulzason va kevartowara is stakera va armenik ke Adana, CUP pako isu Dashnak bak lerdeaksat ke 1909 va sint tuseylayad inde abdiplekuyud da « va abduxoa is tadlemwa is tanara belcon fure kobaved ». Sino dakteyed da nisu icde armenafa sugara va volruptesuca tiyid rolafu. Tanarevik trumayad da va tanoy armenaf eldik gu bowere tazukayane moi 06/08/1909 kofliyid, nume batcoba gu danedisa sugara va solumara va CUP pako gu Adana bifeem co zo ronarur. [30]

Turkafe bowere is dere yon turkaf suterotik isu cosevik meud da stakera dilizeyer, ruyeson da bifeem ke balemeaksat ke 1909 tire tiyid lana armenafa « cidara elakesa is aytasa » [31] tove islamevafa sanelia « naavdasa vas xonukera ke 17000 armenik is 1850 turkik ».[31] Izvopik va ageltuca ke turkafa abduplekura va « armenafa cidara » iltrakud lardetire ede armenik co tiyid relingasik, pune lo turkik jontikote co zo aytayad. Voldum winugafa tirka ke Turka, divef vrutasik inc wiyis bazeckeyed da armenik tiyid kosackaf.

Rawaks ke nuda koe kristevafa revava ke Adana. Po ke bowere male isteon tuksuest va kristevik viltayad. [32]

Lugodaf Tuvel ruyeyer da islamevikaf tazdaks tiyir gijaf loon dam tel armenikaf, trabe 1900 islamevik kapbure 1500 armenik.[33]

Ara Osmanlı tuzda dem Faik Bey is Mosdijian Efendi is Esad Rauf Bey bowesik va Mersin va xonukesikafa ota mal vertok patavayar : 4196 meislamevik is 1487 islamevik don batultik is sayakik.[34] Neke va kotak vas 15000 drageyer, kodoplekuson va mevertokayan korik is lamas kobasik don islamevik.[35]

Osmanlı rictaga va kota gunuca icde xonukesisa viltara va toloy amerikaf alkavuidanik koe Adana widava meuyud, volson bazeson da « armenik va D- M- Rogers is H- Maurer aytayad edje sin koe mona ke turkafa nyobrikya pomason kevfirdeyed. » [19] Turkafa pwadera va pisonara gan inc Stephen Trowbridge amerikaf gertik ke Brooklyn kadimion zo kevkaliyir, i gan inc Stephen Trowbridge bazeyese da bat toloy ayik gan « islamevik » zo xonukesiyid edje va fird dratces va alkavuidaxe lasugrirunkayad.[35]

Viltara is kevaliera wal islamevik is armenik ba 14-e ke balemeaksat tozuweyed nume va yon kosik baton is banon askiyid... Diregazdon, ba 15-e, warzafa vikizafa divdoidara poke yikyafa bema nediyir da gan tey zo dratceyev... Maurer W-ye is jin va madasiki is kufta nariyiv enide va resta is telvung is intaf fogelom ke mona tigisa wale fird is yikyafa bema vilayav... Viele va kepaita poke teyka taneatomon ticlaniyí, pune ervokiraf islamevik awiyid... Viele vangrupeyed da va sin me viltayá volse va lyumara kev teyka kobaveyé, pune va zelt omayad ise dun ravaldayad da me di zo yandeyé... va jotafe yikye preyutase alavon ice nuda bravon ice islamevafa viltara konakviele vosayav enide sine pomatason va giwara va xe ke bema ervonyud... ko bema dimlaniyiv aze va baltanik malimaxuyuv, Rogers W-ye davon artlaniyir... Azon jontikedje kobaveyev, mezaganon gan islamevik, vieli armenik arte nuda va mona toz viltayad lize elakesik sopuyud. Laizon toloya viltara arte leon anyustoye metre male cinafo xo tauleyed. Rogers W-ye awalkolon zo bakayar... Ar vilt va Maurer W-ye kalniyir... Vere moi bata toloya viltara, konakar vilt ke islamevik va jin kabduoniyid... Bat toloy ayik wiyon di awalkeyed. Ton sayakikany ke Yesus Kristos awalkeyed.[35]

Alkavuidanik koe bema idjon ice stakera zo elekayad. Sedme Elisabeth Webb ara vuidanikya ke bema : « To eaftafa debala tiyir, ayikya is yikya riwe antafa koe xe tigiyid, forteyotafi pisonasi tari diveon, dem wed is vilt ta armenik is tilerda ta mona ».[36]

Trowbridge W-ye ko bema dimlaniyir, kalison da antafa musafa pokolera ke amerikik tiyir zavzagira koe bema, voldo armenik. Dakteyer da tiyiv merodegiwas va armenik. Va bema lasubuluyuv ; Wallace W-ya is Chambers W-ye is jotafe armenafe gertikye va nuda ke Wallace laremlaniyid. Batvulon vere lani tari art nuda ipeyer. Yatkaf turkik va armenaf tujdesik pilkomodayad nume viltason aytayad beka Chambers W-ye va meem anamon plekuyur ise va inafi bli cugeke lagiwayar. Mel armenik zavzatar blis, ~ adjubesik iegayad, ~ edje Chambers W-ye va adjubeyen tujdesik ko xe impadimayar.[36]
Armenaf gadiskik koe Adana Dârüleytâm

Francis McCullagh britanaf gejadaalasik arti tanka koe neva icde Abdülhamit II suteyer da 20000 armenik koe Adana « zo stakeyed, ton fikaf goaspil volrokalin maneke varafa tamava zo lemisteyer ».[37] Doughty-Wylie britanaf ikapermik koe jontika givaklita zo miwar kire va stakera ubzeson latutenayar, miv arpumapason. Bak fird gu tanoy vilt ko ma zo balieyer.[36]

Baroye gadiskikxe koe Adana is Hadjin is Dörtyol radimi stakera zo vegeduyud. Adana Dârüleytâm va mon 500 gadiskik emudeyer. [38]

Dere rupec[betara | va krent betá]

Ugalay ke Armenafa saneaytara

Saneaytara va armenik

Vuestexa[betara | va krent betá]

  1. (en) Richard G. Hovannisian is Simon Payaslian, Armenian Cilicia, Costa Mesa, Calif., Mazda Pub, coll. « UCLA Armenian History and Culture; Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces (book 7) », 2008, 637 bu (ISBN 978-1-56859-154-4), Raymond Kévorkian, The Cilician Massacres, April 1909 (bu 339-369)
  2. (en) Samuel Totten is William S. Parsons, Centuries of Genocide : Essays and Eyewitness Accounts, Routledge, 2012, 611 bu (ISBN 978-0-415-87192-1), Rouben Paul Adalian, The Armenian Genocide (bu 117-156)
  3. (en) Rouben Paul Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, Lanham (Md), Scarecrow Press, 2010, 674 bu (ISBN 978-0-8108-6096-4), Adana Massacre (bu 70-71)
  4. (en) « ARMENIAN WEALTH CAUSED MASSACRES; Turks Found Prosperous People Were Paying Taxes Only to Outlaw Kurdish Tribes. THEN OPPRESSION BEGAN Kurds Retaliated When Their Income Was Cut Off -- Christian People Have Now Become Impoverished. », The New York Times,‎ 25/04/1909 (internetxo)
  5. 5,0 et 5,1 (en) Taner Akçam, A Shameful Act : The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility, Picador, 2007, 496 bu
  6. (fr) Claude Mutafian, Le Royaume Arménien de Cilicie, XIIe-XIVe siècle, CNRS Éditions, 2002, 157 bu (ISBN 978-2-271-05105-9)
  7. (en) Donald Quataert, The 1908 Young Turk revolution: old and new approaches, Middle East Studies Association Bulletin, Middle East Studies Association of North America (MESA), vol. 13, n°1,‎ 07/1979, bu 22-29, dene internetxo
  8. (fr) Jacques de Morgan, Histoire du peuple arménien : depuis les temps les plus reculés des annales jusqu'à nos jours, Paris, Berger-Levrault, 1919, 411 bu, internetxo, bu 269
  9. (en) ISLAM VS. LIBERALISM, The New York Times,‎ 15/04/1909, internetxo
  10. (fr) Mantran, Robert (editor), Histoire de l'empire ottoman, 1989, luz 14
  11. (en) AG Chapter 3 – The Young Turks in Power, dene Wayback Machine
  12. (en) "1909-08-08-GB-001" dene www.armenocide.net
  13. (en) "ARMENIAN WEALTH CAUSED MASSACRES". The New York Times. 25/04/1909
  14. (en) Dadrian, Vahakn N. Warrant for Genocide: Key Elements of Turko-Armenian Conflict, bu 71-72
  15. (en) Gurun, Kamuran. The Armenian File: the myth of innocence exposed. Turkiye Is Bankasi Yayinlari, 2007, bu 213
  16. (en) Stephan H. Astourian (2011), The Silence of the Land: Agrarian Relations, Ethnicity, and Power, koe A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Ottoman muslims at the End of the Ottoman Empire, Ed. Ronald Grigor Suny is Fatma Müge Göçek, is Norman Naimark. Oxford: Oxford University Press, bu 78
  17. (en) Charney, Israel (1999). Encyclopedia of Genocide: A - H., Vol. 1 bu 47. ISBN 9780874369281
  18. 18,0 et 18,1 "(en) Constantinople, April 19". The New York Times. April 19, 1909.
  19. 19,0 19,1 et 19,2 (en) MOSLEM MASSACRES TAKE 5,000 LIVES. The New York Times. April 21, 1909
  20. (en) Lambert, Rose (1911). Hadjin and the Armenian Massacres. Revell
  21. (en) Woods, H. Charles (1911). The Armenian Massacres of April, 1909. The Danger Zone of Europe: Changes and Problems in the Near East. Boston: Little, Brown. p. 127
  22. 22,0 22,1 et 22,2 (en) Foreign Cruisers at Mersina. The New York Times. April 23, 1909
  23. (en) AMERICAN WOMEN IN PERIL AT HADJIN. The New York Times. April 23, 1909
  24. (en) DAYS OF HORROR DESCRIBED; American Missionary an Eyewitness of Murder and Rapine. The New York Times. April 28, 1909
  25. (en) MASSACRES CONTINUE ADANA TERRORIZED. The New York Times. May 5, 1909
  26. 26,0 et 26,1 (fr) Les massacres de Cilicie d’avril 1909
  27. 27,0 et 27,1 Creelman, James (01/08/1909). THE VIZIER AT CLOSE RANGE. The New York Times
  28. (en) ADANA OFFICIALS TO BE TRIED. The New York Times.14/07/1909
  29. (en) SINCERITY OF THE YOUNG TURKS. The New York Times. 29/07/1909
  30. 30,0 et 30,1 Akcam, Taner. A Shameful Act. 2006, bu 69–70 : "fifteen to twenty thousand Armenians were killed"
  31. 31,0 et 31,1 (en) Öztuna, Yilmaz. The Political Milieu of the Armenian Question (PDF): 59. Kofukayan male xanto (PDF) ba 29/06/2007, mal internetxo ke Grand National Assembly of Turkey
  32. (en) Mikaberidze, Alexander (2013). ABC-CLIO Amazon.com Barnes&Noble.com. Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes: An Encyclopedia. bu 2
  33. (en) Kévorkian, The Cilician Massacres, April 1909, bu 351-53
  34. (en) Dündar, Fuat (2010). Crime of numbers: The Role of Statistics in the Armenian Question (1878–1918). Transaction Publishers. bu 144. ISBN 978-1-4128-4341-6
  35. 35,0 35,1 et 35,2 (en) BROOKLYN MAN SAW MISSIONARIES SHOT. The New York Times. 02/05/1909
  36. 36,0 36,1 et 36,2 (en) WOMAN DESCRIBES RIOT AT ADANA. The New York Times. 03/05/1909
  37. (en) McCullagh, Francis (1910). The Fall of Abd-ul-Hamid. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd. bu 138
  38. Gadiskikxe ke Adana Dârüleytâm
Stakera ke Adana
Yunkeks ke Le Petit Journal fela, 02/05/1909
Ugal is xo
Evla Balemeaksat ke 1909
Patecta   Flag of Turkey.svg Turka
Debala Adana widava isu gola
Ord is jala
Ord Aultovesa stakera
Jala Lokon wideytaf armenik, is dere ellasik is assurik
Kosikeem   ≈ 30 000
betara teza
P Parthenon 2.svg  Tuveli icde Izvopa  P Parthenon 2.svg

Henry K. Carroll ke Boards of Foreign Missions permeba alutas pu US eldik mu nendara va kristevikeem kev Osmanlı gindaxo