Toquepala (arula)

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Toquepala arula, dem toloya betsava, koe Ilabaya utca ke Tacna gola vagee Perua tigir. Raporaf lingeks vas konaka tcabanesa nakila keve dzeta zo trasiyid, i vas nakila lize tcabanesik elekas is aytas va driviaboltum zo kaatoeyed. Bat lingeks bak abditrocadayugal zo epuyud.

Tcabanesa pendaropa ordafa ke Andes gola tir yoltkirafa gu chaco trogarn. Widik va ayaf oblarot tazukad, va govitol dacked aze aytad oke gralomed. Batcoba kan lingeks ke Toquepala arula namon zo kaatoer.

Uka dum kere is blafote is batake is ebelte ta skura va batyon lingeks zo malsaveyed. Sedme rawopik nakila diolon tukuvatason va tcabaneranya co zo skuyud. Patavara kan 14-e beba va evla vas 7600 AR tanda malzilir.

Tigixo[betara | va krent betá]

Arula poke Toquepala kawodaxo koe Cimarrona vema tigir. Bata gola koe taltefa jaka ke peruafa Andes rodega tigir, vwon ice 2700 m- vamoe bireka. Arte 154 km- male Tacna widava.

Kosmara az vayara[betara | va krent betá]

Bak 1963 fela ke Lima va lana « arula dem raporaf lingeks » koe kawodafa gola ke Toquepala munesteyer, i dem arula evlon gu 10 000 tanda.

Mila arula, xanton grupena yoltkirafa gu Cueva del Diablo, mali icle 1950 al zo worayar. Wori Emilio Gonzáles García bak anton 1963 va ina opon kosmayar. Ayikopafa tcila ke Lima is Jorge Muelle is Rogger Ravines is Miomir Bojovich rawopik wali 1963 is 1967 vayayad. Va zolonuca ke debak gruyeyed ise va konaka raporafa arba isu taza isu yunka is yona trigayiwola trasiyid, i va xeka ke taneakaf ayik.

Pimtara va arula is brava[betara | va krent betá]

To toloya betsava tid, vamoe geeka is getalteka : bata tisa arula is bana brava. Tid danexa ke giatera koe yootafa bada. Abrotce ke arula tir vas 4.20 m- ise mante vas 5.20 ise ontine vas 3 m-. Brava tir leon ontinafa isu ilsuyafa vox loon mantafa vwon ice kolanixo is koak. Dzeteem ke toloya betsava tir kum blis rapor dum kotmana arula, vox dem cugunaykafa zikexa ton raporaf lingeks.

Yambik[betara | va krent betá]

Arula is brava bak cadimafa rekola gan jontiktan ape zo kereleyed. Rotir gan dure liziwesa az dimlanisa lospa, kotviele worasa va arula. Koe batyona brava bak fentugal edje ayik va uma sinka dadiyir, va nakila divnedisa va intafa dalafa dwira va malestura kan tcabanera lingeyer. Bat taneakik va povi is aytca koe mila arula komimayad numen sin va yona bada tere tazukayad.

Lingeks[betara | va krent betá]

Toquepala arula : koef dzeteem ke arula is divef dzeteem ke brava tid zikeyen gu yon amidaf raporaf lingeks, ton tevoy gabot koe arula is toloy koe brava. To azekafa is ksevakirafa vola kaatoesa va sulem is ayik ton katcalafa tuwavevafa vierdinda tid. Malsaveyena uka tid kere is blafote is batake is ebelte. Luxe lum, to koredikam tid, vas cugon 5 cm- icde ayik is 10 cm- icde govitol.

Va nakila dem tcabanesik peyason kugdas va driviabol kaatoed ; lantode sin nutid trakiraf. Va awalkaf govitol rowit : konak kabanon ik mimadjoanon zo kalbakayad. Lana vola awion zo moaykayad, nuskuyuna bak yone porfefe sare.

Nelkafa nakila kan lava is gemafa zova zo skuyud, voxen lan bumaf lingeks kan gelt is sudafa lyova zo askiyid.

Watsa[betara | va krent betá]

Raporaf lingeks ke Toquepala, dum yon milaf kosmaks koe aryono xo ke tamava, va swavevafa pestapa atoed, bristutuson va tcabanera is malestura. Bat lingeks yambackon ok muxason va listuca me zo skuyud voxkire va falanya jekuyud, sedme aptacik.

Taneakaf irubasik trakuyud da mana ewava tiyid kum swava ke geltraf sulem batdume abdida toz tcabaned, pune va godjafa kabura va mimadjo ik kaba kev batyona vola abdizirseyed. Sedme sin bata miga tiyir abditara va tcabaneranya is aultovesa yestara numu sinka ; tiyir to teca dapera is diolura.

Viele sulem va gola tere al buluyud, pune ayik va koolanira dere wanuyur. Arula zo jovleyed aze gan zveri radimion zo kereleyed. Jontiki zverifi niskaki tcastayani moe sid zo katrasiyid. Kaikipon kabdi gubef firday, Toquepala arula gan ayik tronkotus zo kereleyer. Tanoya bura lapteyesa tir tan vrutaks.

Dere rupec[betara | va krent betá]

Vuestexa[betara | va krent betá]

  • (es) Del Busto Duthurburu, José Antonio: Perú preincaico, pp. 34-36. Colección de obras escogidas de José Antonio del Busto. Lima, Empresa Editora El Comercio S.A., 2011. ISBN 978-612-306-033-6
  • (es) Kauffmann Doig, Federico: Historia y arte del Perú antiguo. Tomo 1, p. 116. Lima, Ediciones PEISA, 2002. ISBN 9972-40-213-4
  • (es) Silva Sifuentes, Jorge E. T.: Origen de las civilizaciones andinas p. 47. Lima, Lexus Editores, 2000. ISBN 9972-625-35-4
  • (en) Aldenderfer, Mark S. (1998). Montane Foragers: Asana and the South-Central * (en) Andean Archaic. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. ISBN 978-1-58729-474-7.
  • (en) Andrea, Alfred J. (2011). World History Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-930-6.
  • (en) Dillehay, Thomas D. The Settlement of the Americas: A New Prehistory. 2008. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-7867-2543-4.
  • (en) Jenkins, Dilwyn (2009). The Rough Guide to Peru. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-4053-8165-9.
  • (en) Rice, Prudence M. Vintage Moquegua: History, Wine, and Archaeology on a Colonial Peruvian Periphery, 2011. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-74254-3.
  • (es) Las Cuevas de Toquepala, Toquepala en directo, 2008. Internetxo

Toquepala arula
Wiks va raporaf lingeks keve dzeta ke arula
DEBALA
Debala Toquepala, Ilabaya, Tacna gola
Perua   Flag of Peru.svg
Maneka OOjs UI icon mapPin-progressive.svg 17° 18′ 16" G-, 70° 43′ 05" R-
KIRA
Ord -
Sidopugal
Ayafe sare 7600 AR tanda
Ontine ke kolanixo 2200 m-
Grupene abrotce 10 m-


Pintaks va tan lingeks ke arula