Stakera ke Ludlow

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Stakera ke Ludlow tir stakera askiyina gan kevyastafa ervolita bal Yeldxofa Geja ke Colorado. Sayakik ke Galdolkafa Suesa Ervolita ke Colorado is yon yasegaf susik unen gan Colorado Fuel and Iron Company ( CF&I ) sistu va brocatum ruldas vas mon 1200 yastes yeldxoik is sinyona yasa koe Ludlow koe Colorado galdolk ba 20-e ke balemeaksat ke 1914 ruzadeyed. 20 ok 21 korik don yon yerumanik ke yeldxoik isu nazbeik xonukeyed. John D- Rockefeller tan dopilkotik ke sistu gu kitcara va stakera zo buntupuyur.[1][2]

Bata stakera tiyir dalafa bifa ke Yeldxofa Geja ke Colorado ke 1913-1914, i ke jadifa yastera ke UMWA grosiba kev kobarafa gropaja koe yeldxo ke CF&I sistu vagee Colorado galdolk. Ludlow tir lopisonasa regala ke bata varafa yeldxofa geja numaze va tizapafa sanka koe kotaf galdolk nekiyir. Nope stakera num zauzeteson, yeldxoikaf ervokiraf blay va konaka kevgrosibafa tcema dilfuyud, vilason va kiewega is vilteson va konaka delivara va Galdolkafa Suesa Ervolita ke Colorado redjelon ice 362 km- male Trinidad kale Louisville.[1] Wali toza ke yastera bak lerdeaksat ke 1913 is maltegira ke galdaf sayakik benplekuyumb gan Woodrow Wilson taneagadesik ba 29/04/1914, uldinet da bak yastera 69 ik 199 korik zo aytayad.

Stakera ke Ludlow va gorukafa darima indon gu kobarafa skedara koe Tanarasokeem tcalayar. Edward Zinn seltevaf izvopik ton « pelavafi tegi ke ape tela lotizafa lyumara ke roti ke jeem va kobasikeem bal amerikafa izva » pimtayar.[3] Aba, vajgeson va Kawodafa Tuzda ke koka ta kogrupara va bifeem [4], va exukera ke saneg dulzeyer. Inaf munesteks sanegayan bak 1915 va abduaskira va yona mwa icde rumeikafa kobara is anyustbartivaf kobas vielcek turestayar. Debak ke Ludlow is pokef brocatum tigis arte 29 km- lente Trinidad widavama koe Colorado galdolk re tir tacedafa widava. Debak ke stakera tir digiks ke UMWA grosiba renzayasa va wankafa cugexa namion gu xonukikeem ke ban viel.[5] Kogrupara askiyina moi stakera is witafa rawopafa aneyara va lanyona nega ke yastesik icde bifa gruyeped.[6]

Orka[betara | va krent betá]

Koe lanyona gola ke Rocky rodega, yeldafa bada drume welma tigid ise tid zolonafo robxo drikackon rovansano. Bak 1867 bati yeldafi vruni va William Jackson Palmer banugale gades va darkasaberopikeem azedes va exulexo ke Kansas Pacific kelot sumpayad. Kaliafa divlizera koe Tanarasokeem jupayar da yeld vanpiyir kaaneyapan doleks nume kalion zo tukazayar.

Ba pelava bak 1910, kawodafa raba ke Colorado va 15864 korik uneyer, vodason vas 10% ke uneeem ke galdolk.[7] Yeldafa raba ke Colorado gan abic savesik zo felileyer. Colorado Fuel and Iron sistu tiyir tel logijaf yeldaf savesik ke Talteka is tana logijarotifa ja ke patecta, uneson va mon 7000 korik is stujeson va yeldafa tawova vas 290 km².[7] John D- Rockefeller dirotevik tiyir dalaf gadesik ke batu sistu.[8]

Kawodafa savera tiyir wupesisa is wavdafa kobara. Yeldxoik ke Colorado gan divroidara is belkera is atitsura ke kawodafa dzeta dun zo dratceyed. Bak 1912 awalkereka koe yeldxoeem ke Colorado tiyir vas 7.05 fuxe decitoy unenik, kapbure vedeyaf buok vas 3.15. Bak 1914, Neda ke Koka ke Tanarasokeem icde kawodeem is kawodafa savera munesteyer :[7]

« Colorado galdolk tir dem kawodafa mwanya co gonendasa va kawodik icde musuca koe kawoda ede sina zo rewayad, voxen koe bat galdolk awalkereka tir gijafa loon dam koe kotar numen batcoba nedir da lan zvak ke gedira va yeldxoeem ape tir. »

— Neda ke Koka ke Tanarasokeem icde kawodeem is kawodafa savera.[9]

Ludlow brocaxo, 1913 abdi stakera

Kawodik kare tokoda ke warzeyen yeld zo gidodeyed solve kobavera dununa gu « awalkafa » dum fonsara va mebografa kepaita loviele me zo viroyayar.[9] Bolk ke tokoda jupayar da jontik wawaf is bitonaf kawodik va bli vefayad, frayeson va xelkara is arpumason num nekison va fereon baliafa danexa.[7] Wali 1884 is 1912 kawodafa walta va loon 1700 korik koe Colorado xonukesiyid.[10] Bak ant 1915, 110 pilkik nope walta tikisa vas kawaxo xonukeyed.[7]

Kawodik va moimaxura riwe me romuxayad. Jontik koe sistufa widava zo vredayad lize tawayeem is bedablaceem is zaneleem gan savesik va kawoda zo digiyid. Kotcoba turonkatason is tuodjatason va solsiuca zo envayar.[7] Vedistaf dirotevik foliyid da zidera is tegulara ke kobasikeem laumason va kawodikafa ugalareka voxis levplekuson gu gedira ke sistu zo rovandiliyid. Sistufa widava va kramafa tukiewara va blira ke jontik kawodik tire vanbureyed, ton tulon logijafa mona is lokiewafa kurmafa selara is lomantafa vansara va gaara.[7] Voxen digira va widava va stujerapa va kerdeleem ke kobasikafa blira pu sistu ziliyir, isen sistu va bati roti ta tukiewara va sanegafi kiewati me faveyed. Philip Foner izvopik va sistufa widava ton « jiomafo indxo ke sistu tegisu wetce jiomaik is felisik » pimtayar. [...] Tadle ke " Mwa " tiyir dem verta is vexa ke sistu. Kobasik mbi alomayad. Susik ke sistu, tis tizaf sutik ervokiraf gu lyestasiko is zelt vajoteyen gu vilt dem tulwafa otsa, va mek « tubizaf » diveik koe pemaxo dosteyed ise va divlanira ke mek kawodik rictayad. » Yeldxoik kolikes va sistu div mona loviele flioton zo aloyayad.[11]

Buven gan kobas gropeem fotis wupesis is volmayaf, yeldxoik va grosibeva loloon vanfid. Bilon gu vedey, grustayana kawoda mupuskad da 40 % ke xonukera tid leon dam koe megrosibafa kawoda.[9] Yeldxoik ke Colorado radimi taneafa yastera koe soka bak 1883 va int konakviele lakogrosibad. Tulon dene moavaxo is dilgavaxo bak 1890-e sanda.

Mali 1900, UMWA grosiba va yeldxoikeem koe yon taltef galdolk don vageexo ke Colorado toz grustayar. Va tegira tove Colorado Fuel & Iron sistu oye inafa boksafa pendaropa dirgana gan sumef is kategirevaf Rockefeller is aryon boasik djukuravplekuyur. Empatason ik djison va yastera, yeldafu sistu va yastempasik nelkon xantaf gu Mexika ok Geefa ok Ronefa Europa segeyed. Colorado Fuel & Iron sistu va kolamasik ke amidaf cosot koe yeldxo aotceyer, gribudatason va golera rostasa va kona grustara.

Yastera[betara | va krent betá]

Nekev lagara va sulara va grosibafa tegira, UMWA remi yona tanda moi 1913 ta kogrosibara birgon dun sugayar. Tere grosiba va vexala dem peroy kretuks atoeyer :

  1. Kagrupera va grosiba wetce parlesik ;
  2. Lumisara va divoksera va yeld kare lan buok vas 2000 pound talolk ika tanoy decitor ;[12]
  3. Rewara va kobas vielcek vas anyustoy bartiv ;
  4. Dodera va « awalkafa kobavera » ( aykara va vawakelot is intagabera is nubokera va aytcak ikz- ) ;
  5. Aldostujesik libun gan kobasikeem ( guteldatason ) ;
  6. Rokara va favlara va bete dolexe is kiblara va intaf ravaldus bolk ik selasik ;
  7. Febafa rewara va mweem ke Colorado dum verta icde musuca koe kawoda is tunera va lipif bolk, is tenara va sus bolk ke ja.

Yeldafu sistupu va erura movewayad. Bak pereaksat ke 1913 UMWA grosiba va yastera kabeyer.[13] Yastesik div mona ke sistu zo aloyayad nume ko brocaxo ogeyeno gan grosiba va int goninkeyed. Moe tawova lizukeduyuna gan grosiba ta yastera, kota broca moe intaf azekos al zo vegeduyur ise gu jenukaf bending al zo rabandeyer.

Ba lizukedura va debak, grosiba va tawova poke ekwa ke weluska stasa kal yeldxo al kiblayar enide sin va exulera ke yastempasik di elekayad.[12] Sistu va Baldwin-Felts kogrupasa lafaga ta rojura va warzaf kobasik is kugdara va yastesik segeyer.

Baldwin-Felts wetce kioxaf yastempasik zo grupeckeyer. Lafagik va momimasiko kev brocatum fekeyed ise va broca mejalason viltad, dile aytason va korik iku bakason. Va azakedayan direm dem lyestasiko dere faveyed ise kene pemaxo fieyed. Molikera wal yastesik is kobas kseldunik yoltan gu « scab » gan grosiba ton xonukik dile tenukeweyed. Nobafa dilfura ke viltasik skayes poke brocaxo jupayad da yeldxoik va vaskafa kela leve broca suxayad. Ervokiraf meld wal yastesik is ardialik larujas va yastera dere dilizeyed : batcoba tiyir Yeldxofa Geja ke Colorado.[14]

Kev ticfisa tizura, Elias Ammons bowesik va galdolk ba 28-e ke saneaksat va Galdolkafa Suesa Ervolita rozeyer. Inafa awira va tuvumeltara va debala taneon noveyer voxen gadesik ke ervolita va sistu neyayad. John Chase okilik ke ervolita vezuyus bal tizafa yastera ke Cripple Creek weti sanda, va boksafa vertuma koaykar. Ba 10/03/1914 aldo ke ikakobas dodelik kene kelot poke Forbes koe Colorado zo katrasiyir. Suesa ervolita dakteyer da in gan yastesik al zo adjubeyer.[15] Zauzeteson, Chase va vilara va brocaxo ke Forbes dirgayar. Dilfura zo kabuyur viele pemaxoikeem va bregara va toloy pintik awalkeyes weti tolka tcokeyer. Lou Dold afigasutesik tiyir vrutas va dilfura isen inafa ewava va kerestiara, koe munesteks va yastera jontikviele awid.[15]

Yastesik kali imwugal ke 1914 linveyed. Sedme Anthony De Stefanis izvopik, Galdolkafa Suesa Ervolita va yastera bam al empayar, pomason va kawodaf gadesikeem gu segera va grosibiskaf kobasik. Galdolk va erba ta kiewagira va ervolita luxeon mea dadiyir numen Ammons va inafa dimpira gorayar. Voxe va tanoya suesa rumala vagee Colorado soe iskeyer enide ina va skaltesa debala di rodjiyir. Bana warzafa rumala yoltkirafa gu « Troop A » dalon ruldasa vas suesik ke yeldxo ke Colorado Fuel & Iron sistu is suesik vilteyen gan Baldwin-Felts zo tazukayar ise gu tantazukot ke Galdolkafa Suesa Ervolita zo rabandeyer.[15]

Stakera[betara | va krent betá]

Ba gazda ke 20-e ke balemeaksat, baroy ervolitik ko pemaxo lakiyid enide va divstolera va lane ayikye voleron stolene sedme sin di eruyud. Okilik ke pemaxo Louis Tikas va Hamrock redakik ko golda ke Ludlow wida arte 800 m- mal brocatum kevlaniyir. Bak bata kakevera, toloya ervolita va lyestasiko moe xed poke pemaxo inkeyed ise ken kelot arte 800 m- gee Ludlow kotirkayad. Miledje ervokiraf ellasaf kawodik va brocatum kene rionda vakrillaniyid. Viele toloya fobafa divroidara tuyeyena gan ervolita is sumpatasa va taksa ke Galdolkafa Suesa Ervolita koe Berwind is Cedar Hill va brocatum ke Ludlow elogayad numen yeldxoik tit bria kotirkayad. Viele ervolita toz viltayar, pune konak decitoy yeldxoik is yasik al gelbeyed.[16]

Lyumara remi afizcek teyeped. Ervolita gan tantazukotiskaf kawodaf suesik bak kielcek zo tugodjar. Bak nomcek dolekaf impadimak moe kelotxa kabdue lyestasiko ke ervolita vukir numen jontik yeldxoik is yasa van ronefo briaxo yoltkirafo gu Black Hills rototced. Ba 19-e bartiv pemaxo teyer azen ervolita kolanir aze toz joxar ise elaker. Tikas remi afizcek al zavzagir aze ba teyera wan tigir. Int is toloye artanye gan ervolita zo gralomed. Tikas is Linderfeldt rikulik dirgas va tana taksa ke ervolita bak yon diref aksat va sint konakviele al liked. Edje toloy ervolitik va Tikas gid, pune Linderfeldt va flam ke zelt kev inafa taka arber. Azon Tikas viltanon xonukeyes isu ban toloy yeldxoik di zo katrasid. Tikas ko ge al zo viltayar.[17] Bato baroyo alto kene vawakelot ke Colorado & Southern Railway sistu remi barka di senyed enide gan kenolapis impadimak di zo wid.[17] Fayik ke ervolita va arplekura va awalkoda kevvewad vieli Grosiba ke impadimakaf kobasikeem va divburera az kotawara diner.

Bal meld balemoya ayikya is 11 rumeik koe kela leve tana broca al gelbed lize zo iksed viele mila broca teyawer. Toloya ayikya is rumeikeem di belked. Bata xonukera vanpitid kavangluyasu kizoyu ke UMWA grosiba is lecacka ke Stakera ke Ludlow.[18]

Julia May Courtney koe Remember Ludlow! milsaref teliz koe Mother Earth virda va amidafa woda munester. Dakteyer da valey aytayane ayikye, 55 ayikya is rumeik bal stakera kotote al xonukeyed. Sedme inafa nega :

« Ervolitik va toloye xepe viltayad, i va emaxe ke yastesikeem, aze va punta gu rantafe dre gimayad, koteyason va kota broca. Ayikya is rumeik div teyesa broca ipeyed voxe ko tey gan viltarapa ke ervolita zo malplatiyid. Ayikye ipeyed pomatason va yaseem voxe askison gan jalas staksenik ke awalk zo dolisteyed... ayikya is rumeik ko fuk ( kela ke kusto leve teyesa broca ) gelbeyed, vudesinon gan vikiz is teyka leon dam yoltiskafa akluca ke putcen vilt. Kontan va alto ke lerdoy rumeikam malplekuyun div guboyafa kela patayar, i ke rumeik ton geltam anteyayan edje lyumason is lasugotceson benon nubagiyid... Sotik diskis va sokaf tantazukot va meblis tazuk ilbodeyed ise lantode va taka ik bewa dace gabeyed, nedison va vligura va yastesik. Alub-sanoya ayikya is rumeik bal firdera va brocatum ke Ludlow xonukeyed. Greles ayiktum diskis va nilt ke Kerafa-Gamda gan viltasik zo malplatiyid nume remi tol-san-balemoy bartiv alto koe guboy wan tigiyid edje giwasik va viltasa conya giopon lasuremlaniyid. »[19][20]

Lan munesteks bazecked da toleafo lyestasiko zo vanstayar, zobeteson va mon 200 ervolitik pakes va sopura, voxisen kelotaf unenik ke Colorado & Southern gort va tanoyo lizimeltasiko wal lyestasiko is yastesik rundayad enide va bantan kev viltara ke galdolkafa ervolita di nendayad.[21][22]

Pirdot dem sayakaf fayik ke Colorado galdolk pimtayar da nekira va bifeem al tiyir pisonara va Tikas is aryon stolen yastesik, is viltara dalon getaltu brocatum ke Ludlow. Ervolitik playeyen moe Water Tank bria ( yolt ke tigixo ke lyestasiko ) va brocatum viltayad. Dakteyed da va ayikya is rumeik gazdon bulus abdi meld al wiyid nume trakuyud da yastesik me co toz viltayad ede ayikya vanmiaeon tigiyid. Winugaf munesteks ke tuzda va « engradilafa » linulara ke Linderfeldt is ervolitik remi meld kiavayar ise va bloduca icde wideytafa xonukera ke molikera pu yastesik dirbuyur [23] beka xonukik tiyid yastesikaf yasik.[24] Munesteks va azafa elakera pu « A milk » dere dirnuyur, i pu rumala loote ruldasa vas tantazukotiskaf kawodaf suesik kotantayan gu Ervolita.

Sedme milsaref munesteks, valey yeldxoik is yasik, baroy gubef bewik ke Galdolkafa Ervolita is tanoy ar ervolitik bal lyumara ke vielcek co zo aykayad.[24][25] Wori witaf izvopik ruyed da tanoy sayakik ke galdolkafa ervolita yoltkiraf gu Martin anton xonukeyer. Martin ko berga balion zo viltayar, ape gan yastesik.[7]

Danexa[betara | va krent betá]

Nope stakera, Sankafa Geja koe lomantafa xuta ke Yeldxofa Geja ke Colorado dilizeyer.[26] Viele warzot icde xonukera ke ayikya is rumeik toz galbuweyer, pune grosibaf gadesik va ervo kabeyed. Kolanayd enide bewik ke grosiba « va kota viltaxa mwon rodadina isu werk » di mbi tiskayad. Waroldon yeldxoik kev kawodikaf suesik isu xe isu ugol vagee deri ke Colorado toz gejelupuyud. Koe Trinidad widava UMWA bewik va viltaxa is werk pu yastesik koe grosibaxe volunt anamzilid.[27] Bal direfa sanka, 700 ik 1000 yastesik « va kono yeldxo azu aro dilfud, aloyayason ik aytason va suesik is kawodik is koteyason va xe ». Icle 50 korik don xonukik ke Ludlow bal lyumasa sanka wal suesik is yeldxoik zo aytayad. Konak decemoy ervolitik ko yeldxofi deri tugodjatason zo stakseyed.[27] Doaliera zo tutenayad oxam radimi staksera va galdaf sayakaf milk gan Wilson taneagadesik.[28] Milk va toloya neya baservoayad, arbureson ik konakviele sopeson va askoayan ervolitik. Yeldxofa Geja ke Colorado va mon 75 xonukesik nekiyir.[29]

UMWA grosiba va erba tere mea dadiyir nume ba 10/12/1914 va yastera tutenayar.[29] Ba tenule kretura ke yastesik me zo keldaskiyid, grosiba me zo kagrupeyer isen jontik yastesik zo ikaplekuyud.[30] 408 yastesik zo sopeyed numazen 322 gu pisonara zo koridayad.[31]

Ke korikeem tigiyis koe Ludlow bal stakera, ant John Lawson andik ke yastera wetce pisonas gunik zo kagrupeyer voxen Ilamaf Tregul ke Colorado va bata lanzara tere kuideyer.[29] Tol-san-toloy galdolkaf suesik don sanoy fayik gan Gejatregul zo jizayad.[31] Linderfeldt zo malyeyer da tiyir blodaf gu xonukesira va Tikas is aryon viltayan yastesik voxen int is kotar askoanik di zo vanbuluyud.[32]

Kosikeem[betara | va krent betá]

Yolt [2][33] Klaa ( tanda ) Neki ke xonukera
Cardelima Costa 27 vimtara, viltara, ok belcon 
Charles Costa 31 viltara
Cloriva Pedregone 4 aksat vimtara, viltara, ok belcon 
Elvira Valdez 3 aksat vimtara, viltara, ok belcon 
Eulalia Valdez 8 vimtara, viltara, ok belcon 
Frank Bartolotti ? viltara
Frank Petrucci 6 aksat vimtara, viltara, ok belcon 
Frank Rubino 23 viltara
Frank Snyder 11 viltara
James Fyler 43 viltara
Joseph "Joe" Petrucci  4 vimtara, viltara, ok belcon 
Louis Tikas 29 viltara
Lucy Costa 4 vimtara, viltara, ok belcon 
Lucy Petrucci 2.5 vimtara, viltara, ok belcon 
Mary Valdez 7 vimtara, viltara, ok belcon 
Onofrio Costa 6 vimtara, viltara, ok belcon 
Patria Valdez 37 vimtara, viltara, ok belcon 
Primo Larese ? viltara
Roderlo Pedregone 6 vimtara, viltara, ok belcon 
Rodolfo Valdez 9 vimtara, viltara, ok belcon 

Vuestexa[betara | va krent betá]

  1. 1,0 et 1,1 Ludlow Massacre", Denver University
  2. 2,0 et 2,1 R. Laurie Simmons; Thomas H. Simmons; Charles
  3. Zinn, Howard (1970). The politics of history. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press, bu 79. ISBN 080705450X. OCLC 67649.
  4. United States Commission on Industrial Relations (1915). Final Report and Testimony Submitted to Congress by the Commission of Industrial Relations, The Colorado Miners' Strike. Government Printing Office. bu 6345–8948.
  5. McPhee, Mike. Mining Strike Site in Ludlow Gets Feds' Nod. Denver Post. Denver.
  6. Simmons, R. Laurie; Simmons, Thomas H.; Haecker, Charles; Siebert, Erika Martin, 2008. National Historic Landmark Nomination: Ludlow Tent Colony. National Park Service.
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 7,3 7,4 7,5 7,6 et 7,7 Andrews, Thomas G. (2010). Killing for Coal. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-73668-9. OCLC 1020392525
  8. Zinn 1990, bu 81.
  9. 9,0 9,1 et 9,2 Martelle, Scott (2007). Blood Passion: The Ludlow Massacre and Class War in the American West. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-4419-9.
  10. Campbell, Ballard (2008). Disasters, Accidents, and Crises in American History: A reference guide to the nation's most catastrophic events. Bu 221
  11. Foner 1990, bu 198.
  12. 12,0 et 12,1 Lowry, Sam. 1914: The Ludlow massacre. Libcom.org. Rupeyen ba 06/06/2014.
  13. Zinn, Howard (1997). The Zinn Reader. Seven Stories Press. bu 187. ISBN 978-1-583229-46-0.
  14. DeStefanis, Anthony R. (09/2012). The Road to Ludlow: Breaking the 1913–14 Southern Colorado Coal Strike. Journal of the Historical Society. Springfield, Illinois: University of Illinois Springfield. 12 (2): 341–390
  15. 15,0 15,1 et 15,2 DeStefanis, The Road to Ludlow.
  16. Simmons, R. Laurie; Simmons, Thomas H.; Haecker, Charles; Siebert, Erika Martin (05/2008). National Historic Landmark Nomination: Ludlow Tent Colony. National Park Service. bu 41–42.
  17. 17,0 et 17,1 Fink, Walter H. (1914). The Ludlow Massacre. Denver: Williamson-Haffner.
  18. Zinn, Howard. The Ludlow Massacre. A People's History of the United States. bu 346–349. OCLC 50622172, spunk.org.
  19. Zinn, Howard; Arnove, Anthony (2004). Voices of a People's History of the United States. Seven Stories Press. bu 280–282. ISBN 9781583226285.
  20. Julia, Courtney (05/1914). Remember Ludow!. Mother Earth: 73.
  21. McGuire, Randall (11-12/2004). Letter from Ludlow: Colorado Coalfield Massacre: Excavators uncover chilling evidence of a brutal assault during a 1914 miners' strike. Archaeology. 57 (6). JSTOR 41780959.
  22. Sunseri, Alvin (1972). The Ludlow Massacre: A study in the mis-employment of the National Guard. University of Northern Iowa.
  23. Edward J. Boughton (02/05/1914). Ludlow, Being the report of the special board of officers appointed by the governor of Colorado to investigate and determine the facts with reference to the armed conflict between the Colorado National Guard and certain persons engaged in the coal mining strike at Ludlow, Colo., April 20, 1914. Denver, Williamson-Haffner Co.
  24. 24,0 et 24,1 Dehler, Gregory. Ludlow Massacre. Encyclopedia Brittanica, Inc. Rupeyen ba 07/09/2020.
  25. Fink, Walter H. (1914). The Ludlow Massacre. Denver, Colorado: United Mine Workers Association District 15. bu 25. Rupeyen ba 07/09/2020.
  26. Newton-Matza, Mitchell (26/03/2014). Disasters and Tragic Events: An Encyclopedia of Catastrophes in American History. ABC-CLIO. bu 223. ISBN 9781610691666.
  27. 27,0 et 27,1 Norwood, Stephen H. (03/04/2003). Strikebreaking and Intimidation: Mercenaries and Masculinity in Twentieth-Century America. Univ of North Carolina Press. bu 148. ISBN 9780807860465.
  28. Danver, Steven Laurence (2011). Revolts, Protests, Demonstrations, and Rebellions in American History: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. bu 710. ISBN 9781598842210.
  29. 29,0 29,1 et 29,2 Johnson, Marilynn S. (05/06/2014). Violence in the West: The Johnson County Range War and the Ludlow Massacre—A Brief History with Documents. Waveland Press. bu 28. ISBN 9781478623045.
  30. Zinn, Howard; Frank, Dana; Kelley, Robin D. G. (2002). Three Strikes: Miners, Musicians, Salesgirls, and the Fighting Spirit of Labor's Last Century. Beacon Press. bu 53. ISBN 9780807050132
  31. 31,0 et 31,1 Weir, Robert E. (2013). Workers in America: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. bu 153. ISBN 9781598847185.
  32. Zinn, Howard; Frank, Dana; Kelley, Robin D. G. (2002). Three Strikes: Miners, Musicians, Salesgirls, and the Fighting Spirit of Labor's Last Century. Beacon Press. bu 52. ISBN 9780807050132
  33. Cheyenne Record 07/05/1914Colorado Historic Newspapers Collection. Rupeyen ba 17/11/2018.

Vuestesa neva[betara | va krent betá]

  • Adams, G., The Age of Industrial Violence, 1910–1915: The Activities and Findings of the U.S. Commission on Industrial Relations. Columbia University Press, New York, 1966.
  • Alhadef, Tammy. "Last Survivor of Ludlow Massacre Dies at 94." Pueblo Chieftain. July 6, 2007.
  • Beshoar, Barron B., Out of the Depths: The Story of John R. Lawson, a Labor Leader. Colorado Historical Commission and Denver Trades and Labor Assembly, Denver, 1957.
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Stakera ke Ludlow
Rawaks ke brocatum ke Ludlow, moi stakera
Ugal is xo
Evla 20/04/1914
Patecta   Flag of United States.svg Tanarasokeem
Debala Ludlow monaxo, Colorado galdolk
Ord is jala
Ord Kevyastafa stakera
Jala Brocatum ke yeldxof yastesik
Kosikeem   20
betara teza
P Parthenon 2.svg  Tuveli icde Izvopa  P Parthenon 2.svg
Debalas liwot va Ludlow is ayono yeldxo vagee Colorado
Yeldxoikafa yasa kabdue broca
Yastesik abdi stakera
Yastesik terektasa va dewitca
Ervokiraf yastesik koe Ludlow
Okollakis ervolitik stan gan Lindefeldt ko Ludlow
Impadimakafa atlapira ke ervolita ke Colorado ko Ludlow
Kaima ke Galdolkafa Ervolita kev Ludlow brocatum
Brocatum moi fird is stakera
Ervolitik koe brocatum moi firdera is stakera
Kela leve broca lize konaka ayikya isu rumeik zo vimtayad
Ervokiraf yastesik koe Trinidad bak Sankafa Geja